April Reading List 📚

  • Date: Thursday, 23 April 2020, 13:30:41

1. Phenomenology

2. Space, place

Epistemology

Fine Art

Architecture

  • [ ] Vidler, Anthony, The Architectural Uncanny: Essays in the Modern Unhomely (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1992)

3. Art Analysis

Preziosi, Donald, ed., The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology, Oxford History of Art, New ed (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)

Post-Modernism

  • [ ] Buren, Daniel and London Jack Wendler Gallery, ‘Beware!’, in 5 (Five) Texts (London: John Weber Gallery, 1973), pp. 10–22
    • 아트 크리틱. 일찍 죽음

Internet era

Space

Performative

Installation

Projection

Time

4. Media

Appratus

  • [ ] Agamben, Giorgio, ‘What Is an Apparatus?’ And Other Essays, Meridian, Crossing Aesthetics (Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, 2009)

Archeology

Kittler

  • [ ] Kittler, Friedrich A., and Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, ‘Poet, Mother, Child: On the Romantic Invention of Sexuality’, in The Truth of the Technological World: Essays on the Genealogy of Presence (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2013), pp. 1–16
  • [ ] Winthrop-Young, Geoffrey, and Nicholas Gane, ‘Friedrich Kittler: An Introduction’, Theory, Culture & Society, 23.7–8 (2006), 5–16 https://doi.org/10.1177/0263276406069874

Virilio

  • [ ] Virilio, Paul, The Vision Machine, Perspectives (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994)

5. Cinema

  • [ ] Note Miwon Kwon, One Place After Another: Site-Specific Art and Locational Identity (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2002).
  • [ ] Francesco Casetti, ‘The Relocation of Cinema’, 2012 https://necsus-ejms.org/the-relocation-of-cinema/#_edn4 [accessed 25 April 2020]
    • 시네마를 media 로서 다시 읽으려는 시도
  • [ ] Patrice Maniglier and Dork Zabunyan, Foucault at the Movies (New York: Columbia University Press, 2018).

Form:

  • [ ] Bourriaud, Nicolas, The Exform (London: Verso, 2016)

Spectatorship:

  • [ ] Claire Bishop, Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship (London ; New York: Verso Books, 2012).

6. Methods:

Space

Two In-between

  1. Derrida, Jacques, and Avital Ronell, ‘The Law of Genre’, Critical Inquiry, 7.1 (1980), 55–81

Invagination

  1. Derrida, Jacques, ed., ‘Restitutions of the Truth in Pointing [Pointure]’, in The Art of Art History: A Critical Anthology, Oxford History of Art, New ed (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2009)
    장르, 두 공간에 대한 겹쳐짐에 대해서

Knowledge

  1. Donald Davidson, ed., ‘A Coherence Theory of Truth and Knowledge’, in Epistemology: An Anthology, Blackwell Philosophy Anthologies, 11, 2nd ed (Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008), pp. 124–33

Etc

  1. Two Lectures
  2. What is enlightenment ➡︎ attitude의 의미란 무엇인가
  3. Assemblage/apparatus: using Deleuze and Foucault
  4. Note Henk Borgdorff, ‘The Production of Knowledge in Artistic Research’, in The Routledge Companion to Research in the Arts, 1st ed (New York: Routledge, 2010), pp. 44–63.

202012251332—Close-up and Cinema 클로즈업과 시네마

Main Reference: Mary Ann Doane, ‘The Close-up: Scale and Detail in the Cinema’, Differences, 14.3 (2003), 89–111 https://doi.org/10.1215/10407391-14-3-89.
Tags: #cinema #Montage #Eisenstein #Epstein

Reference at the front from Main reference, at the end from second reference

90 엡스테인

  • 가장 오래된 필름 이론중의 하나인 (프랑스 인상주의 1920년에 시작된)
    • 언어를 초과하기에 가장 시네마적으로 인식되었던 photogénie ➡︎ theoretically incoherent
    • which exceeds language and hence points to the very essence of cinematic specificity.
  • 엡스테인에게 그것은 시네마의 행위적 규범에 속박되어있었다.
    • For Epstein “I would describe as photogenic any aspect of things, beings or souls whose moral character is enhanced by filmic reproduction” (Bonjour 20).
    • it transforms the face, reserved as the very locus of subjectivity into a series of harsh and alien objects.
    • 어떤 관객도 거대한 디테일, 우연성들(contingencies), 특이성들을 살펴보도록 초대된다.
    • The close-up is always, at some level, an autonomous entity, a fragment, a “for-itself.”
      • totality
  • (내 예시)
  • Jean Epstein, Le Lion des Mogols, Jean Epstein, 1924, Provenant de la collection : La Cinémathèque française
  • Epstein’s extravagant language, perhaps unconsciously and certainly despite the invocation of morality, delineates the close-up as a lurking danger, a potential semiotic threat to the unity and coherency of the filmic discourse.
    • 가장 많이 쓰이는 클로즈업은 = 얼굴 the face, fragments the body, decapitating it

91-93 Semiotic role of the close-up

  • 이러한 공간을 다 써버린 얼굴들과 오브젝트들은 시간의 순간들로 일직선적 시간의 내러티브로 펼쳐진다.
    • Space is “used up” by the face or object, and the time of the moment, the time of Epstein’s contemplation, is expanded at the expense of the linear time of narrative.

들뢰즈와 다이아그램 그리고 클로즈업

  • Gilles Deleuze, citing Béla Balázs, claims that “the close-up does not tear away its object from a set of which it would form part, of which it would be a part, but on the contrary it abstracts it from all spatio-temporal co-ordinates, that is to say it raises it to the state of Entity” (95–96).
    • 들뢰즈의 경우 (벨라 발라즈를 예시로) 클로즈업은 한 부분으로 귀속되어있던 오브젝트에서 찢겨나오는 것이아닌 오히려 그것은 그 오브젝트를 시공간의 좌표를 추상화하여 state of Entity 로 상승시킨다.
    • Gilles Deleuze, Cinema I: The Movement-Image, trans. by Hugh Tomlinson and Barbara Habberjam, Bloomsbury Revelations, Paperback edition (London ; New York: Bloomsbury Academic, an imprint of Bloomsbury Publishing Plc, 2018), p. 106.
  • 클로즈업은 시네마틱 차이점과 특수성으로 자주 나타난다.
    • 발라즈에게 클로즈업은 예술필름의 기술적 조건 “the technical condition of the art of film” (qtd. in Aumont 84)
    • 엡스테인에게 클로즈업은 시네마의 영혼 Epstein described the close-up as the “soul of the cinema” (“Magnification” 9)
    • 세르게이 에이젠슈테인에게 있어서 For Sergei Eisenstein, close-up is a crucial element of montage, the close-up was the support of an intellectual, critical cinema.
      • argued for the disengagement of the close-up from reality, criticizing Griffith for his inability to abstract, to get beyond the “narrowly representational” (Film243).
        • Here is the same defect again: an inability to abstract a phe­nomenon, without which it cannot expand beyond the nar­rowly representational. For this reason we could not resolve any “supra-representational,” “conveying” (metaphorical) tasks.
          • Sergei M. Eisenstein, Film Form: Essays in Film Theory, trans. by Jay Leyda, A Harvest Book, 153 (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1977), 243.
      • The function of the close-up in the Soviet cinema was “not so much to showor to presentas to signify, to give meaning, to designate (238).
      • 리얼에서 찢어내어 “absolute changes in the dimensions of bodies and objects on the screen” (Eisenstein, Au-delà229)
      • “[T]he laws of cinematographic perspective are such that a cockroach filmed in close-up appears on the screen one hundred times more formidable than a hundred elephants in medium-long shot” (112).
  • 에이젠슈테인과 다른 이들이 지적했듯, 컨셉은 용여체계 nomenclature에 따라 다르게 해석되곤 한다.
    • Russian and French ➡︎ 크기 largeness or large scale (fros plan)
      • it is thought as a quality of the image, as extensiveness, scale, an imposing stature, the awe of the gigantic as opposed to the charm of the miniature.
      • the Russian and French terms reject possession in favor of transcendence (the image is truly “larger than life”), a scale that guarantees unattainability.
        • Extras: Susan Stewart, On Longing: Narratives of the Miniature, the Gigantic, the Souvenir, the Collection, 1st paperback ed (Durham: Duke University Press, 1993).
    • English ➡︎ 거리 nearness or proximity
      • In the American context, it is conceptualized in terms of point of view, perspective, the relation between spectator and image, the spectator’s placein the scene, and an assumed identification between viewer and camera.
  • 벤야민 Benjamin 에게 클로즈업은 재생산된 이미지를 소유하고자 하는 욕망과 맞닿아있다. possession, possessiveness, the desire to “get hold of an object”
    • the desire of contemporary masses to bring things “closer” spatially and humanly, which is just as ardent as their bent toward overcoming the uniqueness of every reality by accept- ing its reproduction. Every day the urge grows stronger to get hold of an object at very close range by way of its likeness, its reproduction. (“Work of Art” 223)
  • Metz ➡︎ 언어학적 접근이 유행했던 1970년대 유사과학적 접근을 했던 크리스티앙 메츠의 경우 초기 필름 이론에서의 우쭐되던 클로즈업에 대한 해석은 사라진다. 대신 언어학적 시테마의 유닛으로 남는다.
    • and hence why the cinema is always speech—paroleversus langagein Saussure’s terms
      • The image isalways actualized. Moreover, even the image— fairly rare, incidentally—that might, because of its content, correspond to a “word” is still a sentence: This is a particular case, and a particularly revealing one. A close-up of a revolver does not mean “revolver” (a purely virtual lexical unit), but at the very least, and without speaking of the connotations, it signifies “Here is a revolver!” It carries with it a kind ofhere (a word which André Martinet rightly considers to be a pure index of actualization).
        • Christian Metz, Film Language: A Semiotics of the Cinema, University of Chicago Press ed (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991), 67.

94 anthropomorphic close-up

  • For Balázs 발라즈에게 클로즈업은 오브젝트이건 인간 얼굴이건 anthropomorphic .
    • “When the film close-up strips the veil of our imperceptiveness and insensitivity from the hidden little things and shows us the face of objects, it still shows us man, for what makes objects expressive are the human expressions projected on to them. The objects only reflect our own selves.
    • “This most subjective and individual of human manifestations is rendered objective in the close-up” (60).
      • 이것은 특히나 무성영화에서 더 강하게 나타나며 인간과 오브젝트 모두 똑같이 homogeneous 픽처, 사진적 재료들로 같은 스크린에 나타난다.
  • according to Aumont, is “the operation which produces a surface that is sensible and legible at the same time, which produces, as Deleuze says, an Entity” (85).
    • The close-up transforms whatever it films into a quasi-tangible thing, producing an intense phenomenological experience of presence, and yet, simultaneously, that deeply experienced entity becomes a sign, a text, a surface that demands to be read. This is, inside or outside of the cinema, the inevitable opera- tion of the face as well.
    • Deleuze formulates even more extreme
      • “As for the face itself, we will not say that the close-up deals with [traite] it or subjects it to some kind of treatment: there is no close-up of the face, ~the face is itself close-up~, the ~close-up is by itself face and both are affect, affection image~ ” (88)

95 Universal language and close-up

  • (96) Almost all theories of the face come to terms in some way with this opposition between surface and depth, exteriority and interiority.
    • the face constitutes a kind of universal language, and Balázs refers to the “universal comprehensibility of facial expression and gesture” (44–45).
      • Béla Balázs, Theory of the Film: Character and Growth of a New Art (New York: Dover Publications, 1970).
      • Extra: Béla Balázs, ‘Close-Up’, in Béla Balázs: Early Film Theory: Visible Man and the Spirit of Film, ed. by Erica Carter, trans. by Rodney Livingstone, Film Europa : German Cinema in an International Context, 10 (New York: Berghahn Books, 2010), pp. 37–45.
  • Traditionally, according to Deleuze, the face has been given three roles:
    1. as the privileged site of individualization (it embodies each person’s uniqueness);
    2. as the manifestation of social role or social type;
    3. as the primary tool of intersubjectivity, of relation to or commu- nication with the other (this also refers to an adequate, mimetic relation, within the individual, between face and character or role).
  • This understanding of the face requires that it be completely detached from ordinary notions about its social semiotics.
  • The close-up pushes us beyond the realm of individuation, of social role, and of the exchange that underlies intersubjectivity.
  • Yet, there is simultaneously a strong denial that cinematic specificity is at work here—the face and the close-up are equated in the arguments of Deleuze, Aumont, and even Balázs. Inevitably, these analyses (particularly those of Epstein and Balázs) produce nostalgia for the silent cinema, since it is the face that speaks there, and speaks to us (rather than to other characters) so much more eloquently when mute.
    • 그러나, 동시에 영화 적 특이성이 여기에 작동한다는 강한 부정이있다 – 얼굴과 클로즈업은 델뢰즈, 오몬트, 심지어 발라즈에게 있어서동일시된다.

98 Examples

  • (For Epstein) Sessue Hayakawa’s face In Cecil B. De Mille’s 1915 The Cheat – Given the stony immobility of his face, a slight twitch of an eyebrow could convey extraordinary significance.
  • Rouben Mamoulian, Queen Christina, 1933.
  • Alfred Hitchcock, Sabotage, 1936.

103

The legibility of all three instances of the close-up is intimately linked to their very lackof autonomy.

104

  • However, I am not confirming here the banal argument that the close-up must always be read in context and that therefore film theory’s espousal of the idea of its autonomy, its unavoidable despatialization, is simply wrong.
    • why the marked discrepancy between theory’s excessive concentration on the close-up’s extractability from all spatiotemporal coordinates, its production of a hitherto unknown dimension, and its practice within specific films?
      • I would argue that it has a great deal to do with an implicit politics of cinematic scale, most visibly incarnated in the close-up.
      • A number of theorists attempt to elaborate a politics of the close-up or a politics of the face
      • According to Deleuze and Guattari in A Thousand Plateaus, “The face is a politics [. . .]. Certain assemblages of power require the production of a face, others do not [. . .]. The reason is simple. The face is not a universal. It is not even that of the white man; it is White Man himself, with his broad white cheeks and the black hole of his eyes” (181, 175–76).
        • Face = White Man
          • The societies that do not require the production of a face are (predictably enough) primitive societies, societies that are “collective, polyvocal, and corporeal” as opposed to signifying and subjective. They do not operate through the face but through the body, bringing into play heterogeneous forms and substances.
      • For Aumont, on the other hand, the face has operated as the very location of the human since it, ~together with the voice~, allow us a privileged access to the humanity of the other.

106 Detail and despatialisation

  • The only film theorist who situates the politics of the close-up in relation to the question of scale is Eisenstein, with his emphasis on the superiority of the Russian term—large scale or large shot—to that of the English—close-up. [[202012251645—Eisenstein and Close-up]]
    • the close-up is most significantly the close-up of objects, not of the human face:
    • The representation of objects in the actual (absolute) proportions proper to them is, of course, merely a tribute to orthodox formal logic. A subordination to an inviolable order of things [. . .]. Absolute realism is by no means the correct form of perception. It is simply the function of a certain form of social structure. (Film 34–35)
  • Balázs – Balázs, who embraces the defamiliarization argument, also argues that the close-up is not a detail because there is no whole from which it is extracted. The space of the narrative, the diegesis, is constructed by a multiplicity of shots that vary in terms of both size and angle—hence this space exists ~nowhere~; ~there is no totality of which the close-up could be a part~. And certainly if one accepts the theories of the close-up’s despatialization, it cannot be defined as a detail, since it occupies the only space there is, constituting itself as its own whole or totality, abolishing off-screen space.
    • Extra: Invagination ➡︎ Jacques Derrida, ‘The Law of Genre’, trans. by Avital Ronell, Critical Inquiry, 7.1 (1980), 55–81.
  • 이야기 안에서는: ~In the diegesis,~ that fictional space produced by the film, the close-up—despite Balázs’s denial—will always ~constitute a detail~, a part.
  • 관람객의 공간에서는: Yet, ~in the spectator’s space~, that of the theater, the close-up will, even if only momentarily, constitute ~itself as the totality~, the only entity there to be seen.
    • 30년간의 필름 연구에서 관람객의 공간을 없애기 위해 노력해왔다. 그렇기에 클로즈업은 자율적인 실채로 face of the closed
      • (108) Three decades of film theory have insisted that the classical cinematic text works to annihilate this space of the spectator—to suggest that the only world is that on the screen. Hence, the embrace of the close-up as autonomous entity by Balázs, Deleuze, and especially Epstein, is an attempt to salvage spectatorial space, to reaffirm its existence and its relevance in the face of the closed, seamless space of the film.

109

  • In the close-up, the cinema plays simultaneously with the desire for totalization and its impossibility.
  • Its unspeakability is no doubt linked to the desire to make it a corporeal experience, a matter of touching, feeling, tasting, as well as seeing. Yet, the historical trajectory of classical cinema was to defeat that body by annihilating its space, its ability to act as a measure of scale. Photogénieis usually referred to as one of the earliest examples of cinéphilia, a love of the cinema that insists upon its uniqueness and its ability to induce a form of incomparable ecstasy.

202007052120 — Deleuze and Diagram

Reference: Ben van Berkel and Caroline Bos, ‘Diagrams: Interactive Instruments in Operation’, in This Is Not Architecture: Media Constructions (London; New York: Routledge, 2002)


  • Architecture still articulates its concepts, design decisions and processes almost exclusively by means of a posteriori rationalisations.
  • The compulsive force of legitimising arguments still dominates contemporary debate,
  • Since architecture – at least in the open, democratic, Western society in which we work – now results from a highly institutionalised, cooperative process in which clients, investors, users and technical consultants all take part, ➡︎ 이건 건축만은 아닐 것이다.
  • The frustrating result is that there is hardly any real architectural theory to be found, despite the diversity of practices at work today and despite a hugely expanded volume of architectural publications. There is only after-theory.

건축 스케치의 종류

  • 버블 다이아그램 for relationship mapping (space and its function)
  • Designing the outer form of the built environment
  • figure ground (Black and white) for volumetric analysis

Architecture as social discursive practice

  • Looking into diagrammatic procedures is one way to partially open that door and to dislocate the protective and constrictive barriers that architecture has raised to hide its vulnerable centre.
  • a diagrammatic technique presents an opportunity to examine the social-discursive aspect of architectural practice from within.
    • 이것이 꼭 소셜 디스커시브인걸까? Relation discursive 가 될 수 있지 않을까?
  • Their function is to regulate production, consumption and distribution of texts within a particular field of interest. Discursive practices cannot very well be seen as separate from the social framework in which they take place,
    • ::이 부분에서 주장이 조금 튼튼하지 않아보이는 것에 대해서 한번 써보는 것은 나쁘지 않을듯.::
  • The challenge for the next generation of architects is to acknowledge and analyse the internal discourse, which from a social- discursive viewpoint is far more comprehensive than the methodological process that is the basis of current design practice, and to find a theory of the real in that.
  • There are different interpretations of the diagram, which occupy different positions on the sliding scale between subjectivity and objectivity.
  • its imagery and the ways in which it instrumentalises concepts of organisation.3

Meaning of the diagram

  • More to the point is the general understanding of the diagram as a statistical or schematic(개요 도식적인) image.
  • In its most basic and historical definition, the diagram is understood as a visual tool designed to convey ‘as much information in five minutes as would require whole days to imprint on the memory’. ::4::
    • * J. Krausse, ‘Information at a Glance: On the History of the Diagram’, OASE(SUN Nijmegen, 1998). Krausse here quotes William Playfair, architect of the contemporary diagram, whose book The Commercial and Political Atlas(1786) introduced economic curve diagrams and bar charts.
  • ::Diagrams are best known and understood as reductive machines for the compression of information.::
  • 최근 건축에서 다이아그램의 사용법
    • diagrams can also be used as proliferating machines.
    • thus transforming the diagram’s conventional significance.
    • For architecture,
    • the diagram conveys an unspoken essence, disconnected from an ideal or an ideology, that is random, intuitive, subjective, not bound to a linear logic, that can be physical, structural, spatial or technical.
    • architecture has been encouraged by the writ- ing of Gilles Deleuze, who described the virtual organisation of the diagram as an abstract machine.

들뢰즈의 압스트랙 머신

  • Architecture similarly oscillates between the world of ideas and the physical world,
  • Deleuze offers at least three versions of the diagram:
    • via Michel Foucault,
    • via Francis Bacon and
    • via Marcel Proust.
  • 이들 사이의 차이점을 알아보고자 하는 거서이 아니다.
    • Instead of recognising three ‘versions’ of the diagram, we should instead speak of moods or tonalities, for what strikes us is that three deeply significant aspects of the diagram are conveyed in three very different modes.
    • 다른 스테이지들
      1. Associated with Foucault: how the figure of the diagram is not representational.
        1. Panopticon is ‘the diagram of a mechanism of power reduced to its ideal form … a figure of political technology’. ::5::
          1. Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison (New York: Vintage Books, 1979).
        2. It conveys the spatial organisation of a specific form of state power and discipline.
        3. cannot be reduced to a singular reading; ::like all diagrams, the Panopticon is a manifold.::
        4. Typically, when a diagram breeds new meanings these are still directly related to its substance; its tangible manifestation.
        5. ::Critical readings of previous interpretations are not diagrammatic.::
        6. a diagram is a diagram because it is stronger than its interpretations.
        7. Foucault introduced the notion of the diagram as an assemblage of situations, techniques and functionings made solid, he put the emphasis more on the strategies that form the diagram than on its actual format.
        8. For him, the diagram is interesting not as a paradigmatic example of a disciplinary technology, but as an abstract machine that ‘[makes no] distinction within itself between a plane of expression and a plane of content’. ::6::
          1. Gilles Deleuze, A Thousand Plateaus, trans. Brian Massumi (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1987), p. 141.
        9. ‘The diagrammatic or abstract machine does not function to represent even something real, but rather constructs a real that is yet to come.’ ::7::
          1. Gilles Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, trans. Daniel W. Smith (unpublished manuscript), p. 55. [Since the original publication of the present essay, this has been published (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992).]
        10. it is about ‘the real that is yet to come’.
      2. Bacon; as we mentally take up the paintbrush we simultaneously engage in an earthy and lighthearted, playful debate about the selection and application of the diagram
      3. Proust; the interaction of time and matter is introduced, without which there can be no transformation. 여기서는 뮤지컬 턴,

Tools against typologies, 클리쉐와의 싸움

  • 리프레젠테션 테크닉은 implies 우리가 컨셉츄얼 포지션에서 리얼리티에 집중하여 아이디어와 폼의 관계를 고정시키도록 한다. A representational technique implies that we converge on reality from a conceptual position and in that way fix the relationship between idea and form, between content and structure.
    • it cannot escape existing typologies 유형학, 표상 상징.
  • An instrumentalising technique such as the diagram delays typological fixation.
    • How this is done is a trivial question for many techniques, but a vital one for what we call an instrumentalising technique ➡︎ The role of the diagram is to delay typology and advance a design by bringing in external concepts in a specific shape: ::as figure, not as image or sign.:: ➡︎ 베이컨?
      • ‘is a violent chaos in relation to figurative givens, but is a germ of rhythm in relation to the new order of painting’. ::8::
        • * Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, p. 55.
      • 들뢰즈에 따르면 페인팅은 언제나 클리쉐와의 싸움을 마주한다. perpetual (영원한) fight
      • even the reactions against clichés are creating clichés.’ ::9::
        • * Deleuze, Francis Bacon: The Logic of Sensation, p. 49.
    • The selection and application of a diagram has a certain directness.

Instrumentalising the diagram 기구화[도구화]하다

  • 베이컨은 꼴라쥬를 통해 직접적으로 unmediated 클리쉐를 방해하지 않고 대신 instrumentalist effectuated 했다.
  • At this point the third meaning of the diagram, which confirms and facilitates the previous two, emerges: the triggering of the abstract machine. The abstract machine must be set in motion for the transformative process to begin,
    • 어떻게 다이아그램을 움직이게 하나? 어떻게 압스트랙 머신이 triggered되나?
      • Deleuze offers an indication by pointing at the novelistic treatment of time. Through Proust’s novel run, long lines of musicality, passion, pictoriality and other narrative lines that coil around lack roles within the story,
      • What exactly is the principle that effectuated the changes and thus formation that we find in real life and real time? Furthermore, how can we isolate this principle and render it to the dimensions that make it possible to grasp and use at will?

Faciality: the operational dream.

  • 이 글에서 어떻게 프루스트의 블랙홀을 건축학적 다이아그램에 적용시킬 수 있는가 질문한다.
    • One of our current projects is structured as a diagram of faciality.

      Klein bottle

결론

  • The abstract machine in motion is a discursive instrument;
    • it is both a product and a generator of dialogical actions which serve to bring forth new, unplanned, interactive meanings.
    • Discourse theory introduces the notion that meanings are not transferred from one agent to another but are constituted in the interaction between the two agents. Likewise, the architectural project is created in this intersubjective field.
  • Diagrams, rich in meaning, full of potential movement, loaded with structure, turn out to be located in a specific place after all.
  • Understood as activators that help trigger constructions that are neither objective nor subjective, neither before-theory nor after-theory, neither conceptual not opportunist,
  • ::the location of the diagram is in the intersubjective, durational and operational field where meanings are formed and transformed interactively.::

#toread

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-04

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-09

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-10

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-11

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-12

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-13

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-19

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-20

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/foucault/lecture-23

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/painting-and-question-concepts/lecture-01

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/painting-and-question-concepts/lecture-02

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/painting-and-question-concepts/lecture-03

https://deleuze.cla.purdue.edu/seminars/spinoza-velocities-thought/lecture-15-0

Where is My World?

In my childhood, computer game was a fixed space, without time or location. There was an event, and game items, but it was a fixed spacetime. During the game, I was able to divide the space inside the computer and the real physical space. As much physical time was frozen, computer game space was frozen as well, despite flowing and moving images. One event or one story continued endlessly, and spacetime repeated until my character beat the last monster where the character died again and again. It was a space of the death rather than a space to survive. The endless death represented the passage of time, and how many hours of character life has left represented how much time has passed.
We now watch the movie through computers, mobile phones, or other devices like the iPad. But movie space is no different. Even though there is no room for me to interrupt in the movie, except little mouse and remote control (but can we say it is real interruption? Even in the movie theatre, I can just rush out from the black box) through ending credits, I can feel that one event has ended and another block of time has passed.
The events never end. The small spaces are repeated without end.
Perhaps this is where my research question began. How many pieces of events, time, and space can coexist? How can this schizophrenic space have a relationship or construction? If I am no longer just an observer but an active user or producer, where is my position in this network?
The start was perhaps mechanical eyes, as Dziga Vertov’s work, it was camera vision, giving the third gaze to the division of culture and nature. Through the mechanical eyes, the human world is no longer culture, and no wild animal world is nature, and two worlds are merged as a third spacetime on the screen. It is not the question of real or virtual anymore, but how many worlds we have or we can have now. As much human exist on the earth new world is created. Then, where is my world? What is my world?
I look at my room. My room is the maximum size of the world that I can compose and perceive as a physical reality, that is the limit of the range of action I can perceive. “We no longer know what is imaginary or real, physical or mental, in the situation, not because they are confused, but because we do not have to know and there is no longer even a place from which to ask” (Cinema 2 7 ). The moment I leave my home, the spacetime of the world is indiscernible its size and scope. The moment I become more than my house, I only reconstruct them through the abstracted notions. If, as Deleuze says, movement-image and time-image have represented time indirectly and directly with the movement of active actants and the observation of actants, I can no longer do both. I’m just looking at a network of relationships that I am part of it.
I recognise the ground that I am standing on, but the relationship with that ground is not connected to how I construct them. The village I live in is not made up of the networks I have created. Postcodes, addresses, and street name indicate how this place connected with the Country, Korea. It has already been set up, and I only can borrow or use that same code to place myself in it.
Isn’t this too passive? What role do I play? Am I not too passive? Will I be satisfied with this set of my position? Will I be happy with the time of piled up characters’ death? How can I construct my time and space?
The practice, for me, is active participation. I do not passively place me on the network. I am concerned. I connect my network. Eisenstein repositioned history. Vertov repositioned the human eye. The two approaches are very different but desires toward the same direction. The two directors pursued a transition from a passive position to an active, and for both, it was reconstruction through the practice of editing. It is Eisenstein’s way of seeing the past, rather than the additive effect from the editing technique that causes emotional ecstasy. He chose to become a producer and observer himself while making films. I am a producer and an observer.

2020-06-19-SEEABLE RELATIONSHIP. SAYABLE CONNECTION. #04: In Search of Lost Time

This post is not organised writing or essay, but the fragmented thought.

In the Dream and In-between

Once the dream was known as the future to come. It shows the messages from the ancestors to warn the dangers or fortunes. Or, it was a desire that is suppressed long time, desired but unachieved affection. Now, it became a common knowledge that dream is just a crumbled memories that made an assemblage by the brain with total anomalous. Yet, we don’t know why we sleep and why we have a dream. Its functionality is still the greatest mystery in human being. Deleuze referencing Marcel Proust’s ~In Search of Lost Time~and analyse as an assemblage, it is qualified as encyclopaedic, non-hierarchal, and self-reflexive qualities, which indicates a systematicity of heterogeneity. If his book is an assemblage of those three qualities, it is not unreasonable to say his book is a ‘dream.’ It is a diagramatised dream. It is not surprising why his book starts with the state of the in-between of dream and reality. His monologue consists of both dimensions.

Once awake and checking the time, and soon he is talking in the dream with an unclear distinction of real and dream. Each dimension contains a different system, the dream has its own, as Deleuze analysed. In the dream, there is random—random in the ‘real dimension’ perspective—figures and relationships. The heterogeneous connections appear and disappears. A stranger became a dearest and passionate lover, and ‘real’ sweetheart became the purest sadness. One thing would be sure that it is self-reflective. Two dimensions are not connected by the fracture of memories, but its connector is the human body. The human body became a mediator of the affection and experience in the dream. That is the only linkage that makes experienced and represented. The self-reflective dream constructs each representation following its own system and that representation created by the conscious experience.

From the viewer’s point of view, the film triggers the affect by receiving moving images through constrained vision, unlike the novel or illustration. It doesn’t give you the freedom to put the connection and restructure the imagery narrative. It doesn’t give you the space to move your body. It is not self-reflective but outer-reflective. Its strong authorship — by the author? Or systemic imagery? — constraint the viewer within their dream, or rather the diagramatised dream. The heterogeneous image structure paralyses the viewer and make them give up their body but live off the screen. Full of freed souls strolling around the screen. Do they know where they are? Do they know where they are heading? As the purpose of the dream is not to make a story or the narrative, film’s primary purpose, I believe, is the spill out the fragmented memories, experience, emotions, sadness, happiness, whatever human being produces following the reflection of the world and other beings. Although, many filmmakers worried remote control that would usurp the throne and distribute to the viewers. Has it really happened? Or haven’t we analysed in the wrong way? The author wasn’t the king or anaesthetic after all. The authorship since modernism, it became an archaic and forgotten term.
But it is same as we killed a man who doesn’t exist.

I will analyse this further in next post.

New Questions

  • What is the phenomenology in the dream and imagery?
  • How does condition of diagram?
  • Is diagram a both figure and background? content and form?

202004032042 — Why Gesture

Reference: Church, R. Breckinridge, Martha W. Alibali, and Spencer D. Kelly, eds., Why Gesture?: How the Hands Function in Speaking, Thinking and Communicating, Gesture Studies (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017), vii https://doi.org/10.1075/gs.7

Gesture Study

3

  • 제스처 스터디는 20세기쯤부터 고성장 (bourgeoning) 특히나 말을 할때의 역할로서 연구되었다.
  • “window on the mind.” ::Hearing Gesture, Susan Goldin-Meadow (2007):: frequently in a way that reflects an imagistic version of what is being spoken.

4

  • 아리스토 텔레스는 행위를 일으키는 것과 (what causes a — efficient cause), 행위를 하는 이유 (what behaviour for — final cause)로 나누었다.
  • 산책을 한다고 할때, working metabolic 과 근육 시스템이 efficient cause, 건강이 final cause이다.
  • 이 글에선 what gesture is for가 될것이다.

397

  • 이 책에서 첫 테마는 제스처에 대해서는 생물학적, 정신학적 그리고 사회적으로 해석해 본다.
  • 두번째 테마로는 제스처의 기능을 모든 시간대의 프레임으로 해석해본다. – moment-to-moment, ontogenetic, and evolutionary
  • 세번째 테마는 the methodology for studying gesture is necessarily varied.

398

  • Finding that gesture occurs across different contexts and under different task requirements tells us that its functions are multi-faceted and flexible.
  • 네번째 테마는, 제스처의 기능은 producer를 위해서만 기능하지 않고, 보는 사람을 위해서도 작동한다. The gestyoure supports speech to enhance internal activities of the speaker, such as thinking and language production, while simultaneously supporting speech to enhance communication to listeners, influencing the listener’s thinking and language comprehension.

398-401 (Neurological evidence Analysis)

401- (Psychological evidence Analysis)

  • Gesture appears to be linked with language to support the way spatial information in speech ::(Alibali et al., Chapter 2; Ozyurek, Chapter 3)::
  • As another example, gesture appears to reflect action in a simulated form in problem-solving contexts (Hostetter & Boncoddo, Chapter 7; Nathan, Chapter 8)
  • 특히나 챕터5 에서 McNeill and Lopez-Ozieblo’s
    • Growth Point Theory (GPT):
    • (1) gesture and speech are synchronized;
    • (2) gesture’s format, which is gestalt, 3D, and imagistic, is distinctly different from speech’s format, which is analytic, 2D, and linear;
    • and (3) because these two formats are different, the combination of gesture and speech modalities reflects a more complete version of an idea than either modality alone.

402-404

  • De Ruiter의 경우 스피치가 제스처에 영향을 끼친다고 하며 제스처가 스피치의 supplement information으로 (that is redundant with speech)라고 말해지지만 이 책에서의 연구를 통해서 사실 서로가 영향을 받으며,
  • GPT 를 통한 연구는 gestyoure content mirrors speech content, because gesture’s format is 3-D and nonlinear, it is never fully redundant with speech.
  • Gesture provides visuo-spatial information that reflects 3-di- mensional, dynamic, as well as perceptual features (Hostetter et al., Chapter 7).
  • 제스처는 embodied cognition와 연결되어있다.
    • our understanding of concepts may be grounded in the way we physically interact with the world, which is reflected in the way we gesture about the world (Cook & Fenn, Chapter 6; Hostetter et al., Chapter 7; Nathan, Chapter 8; Novack & Goldin- Meadow, Chapter 17; Hostetter & Alibali, 2008; Alibali & Nathan, 2007; McNeill, 2005; Núñez & Lakoff, 2005)
  • 챕터 17에서 제스처는 특이한 유니크한 폼의 액션이다.
    • 즉 제스처는 어떻게 직접적으로 세상에 영향을 끼치는가에 대한 정보를 담은 직접적으로 세상에 영향을 끼치지 않는 액션이다. it represents information about a direct effect on the world without having a direct affect on the world (e.g., twisting a jar lid results in an open jar in a way that producing a twisting gesture does not; see also Goldin-Meadow, 2015, and Novack & Goldin-Meadow, 2016, for discussion).
      • This in betweenplace may serve a particularly important purpose for cognition.
    • However, gesturing about acting on objectsis more likely to lead to generalization and retention than actually acting on objects(see Novack & Goldin-Meadow, Chapter 17 and also Novack, Congdon, Hemani-Lopez & Goldin-Meadow, 2014; and Congdon, Novack, Brooks, Hemani-Lopez, O’Keefe & Goldin-Meadow, under review; Wakefield, Hall, James & Goldin-Meadow, 2017).

404-405 Social Evidence (Chapter11-16)

405- (Gesture Functions in all time frames)

Moment-to-moment

Developmental time frame

Evolutionary time frame

제스처 메카니즘

6

  • A number of evolutionary perspectives suggest that gesture evolved either as a precursor to spoken language (Bates & Dick, 2002; Corballis, 2002; Rizzolatti & Arbib, 1998; Tomasello, 2008) or simultaneously along with it (McNeill, 2012).
  • In addition, there are powerful mechanisms of gesture on the much shorter timeframe of moment-to-moment processing, which spans from seconds to minutes. For example, when people are faced with challenging spatial and motoric tasks, they produce more representational gestures when they speak, than when they face simpler tasks (Alibali, Yeo, Hostetter & Kita, Chapter 2).

제스처의 기능

7

  • Tinbergen (1963) points out, a behaviour can be functional without being the direct product of some specific evolutionary mechanism.
    • human hands evolved to interact with real objects in the environment, but they were co-opted over time to also serve the communicative function of gesturing about imaginary objects not present in the here and now.
  • The gestures may enhance or disrupt common ground (Nathan, Alibali, & Church, Chapter 13), clarify or confuse an important concept (Singer, Chapter 14)

챕터 2 Representational gesture help speakers package information for speaking p. 15-

15

  • What role do gestures play in speaking? Current theories of gesture production have three primary foci:
    1. the role of gestures in communicating information,
    2. the role of gestures in producing speech, and
    3. the cognitive processes that give rise to gestures.
  • These distinct perspectives emphasise different aspects of the complex behaviour that we recognize as gesture.

16

  • We focus in particular on representational gestures, which are movements that represent semantic information via form (handshape), trajectory, or location.
  • 이러한 제스처는 beat 제스처와 다르다. which are motorically simple gestures that manifest aspects of the structure and prosody of speech but do not convey semantic content (McNeill, 1992), and 또한 인터렉티브 제스처와도 다르다, from interactive gestures, which are used to regulate turn-taking and other aspects of interaction among participants in a communicative situation (Bavelas, Chovil, Lawrie, & Wade, 1992).
  • 스피치와 제스처는 다른 기호적 특성을 가진다
    • Gesture: Distinct meanings converge into a single, synthetic gesture.
    • In contrast, speech is analytic and combinatorial, in the sense that the meaning of the whole depends on the meanings of the individual elements.
  • 글로벌과 통합적인 특징으로, gestures are adept at expressing spatial, motoric, and relational information (Alibali, 2005)
  • 이 글은 Information Packaging Hypothesis Kita(2000)에 의해 개발된 메또돌로지를 이용해 분석해본다.

Information Packaging Hypothesis란?

- *Information Packaging Hypothesis* “helps speakers organize rich spatio-motoric information into packages suitable for speaking” (Kita, 2000, p. 163) 
- 키타에 따르면 공간-동적(spatio-motoric) 생각은 “alternative informational organization that is not readily accessible to analytic thinking” (p. 163) 

17

  • 키타의와 몰(2012)의 의견에 경우
    • In later work, Kita and Özyürek (2003) further specified this process in their Interface Model, which holds that gesture production and speech production processes are linked bidirectionally. 스피치와 제스처 사이엔 익스체인지가 일어남.
    • Through this process, gesture and speech converge in content; more specifically, gestures encode information equivalent to the infomation speech encodes within a processing unit for utterance formation (roughly a clause for adult speakers) (Mol & Kita, 2012).
  • 이 생각은 다른 두개의 컨템 스피치 속 제스처에 대한 의견과 반대된다.
    1. First, the Lexical Retrieval(회복) Hypothesis (Krauss, Chen, & Gottesman, 2000): – Briefly, gestures activate spatial-dynamic features of concepts, which in turn feed activation to lexical items, facilitating speakers’ retrieval of those lexical items.
    2. Second, the Image Activation Hypothesis(de Ruiter, 1998; Wesp, Hesse, Keutmann, & Wheaton, 2001). gestures serve to maintain activation on mental images while they are encoded in speech.

20

- IPH에서 키타가 한 실험.
    - [image:5DDDBD6B-5494-438C-A9C3-0C293094973A-1343-0001218ACC14AD90/Screenshot 2020-04-03 at 22.32.02.png]
- As predicted from the IPH, participants produced more representational gestures (but not more beat gestures) in the hard condition than in the easy condition, while using comparable content in speech. 
- 결과적으로 더 어려운 그림을 설명해야할 때 더 많은 제스처를 사용함

제스처의 제한

22

- 아이들의 제스처를 제한 시킨뒤 설명을 시켰을때, 
    - 비교문이라던가  (about information that was not perceptually present, such as information about the initial equality of the object), 
    - 아니면 변화 transformation that the experimenter had previously performed.
    - 또는 hypothetical states or transformation (e.g., “if you put these two together, then this would be longer that this”)
- 제스처를 허용했을 경우
    - tended to focus on information that was perceptually present (e.g., “this one’s taller”) 
    - often combination with deictic information with perceptual gesture information.
        - (i.e., a gesture toward one of the task objects that also depicted or highlighted a perceptual feature of the object, such as a flat palm held at the top edge of one of the glasses, to depict the height of the glass) 
- **Thus, prohibiting gestures reduced children’s focus on perceptually available spatio-motoric information in their explanations.** 

24

- participants who were allowed to gesture expressed a greater percentage of key events with semantically rich verbs than did speakers who could not gesture. This finding is compatible with the view that speakers package information differently when they produce gesture and when they do not. 
- In addition, speakers who could not gesture were more likely to begin units with a filler (i.e., “um,” “uh,” “and,” or “then”) than were speakers who were al- lowed to gesture. 

30

- (말하기 전 집중용으로) Alibali et al. (2014) argued that the boy’s gesture served to focus his attention on the width of the dish, and highlighted information about width for verbalization. 
- (할 말이 정해진 상태에서 어떻게 말할 것인지 표현할 것인지 possible option를 explore하는 용으로 제스처를 사용) In other cases, speakers’ choices about what information to express are relatively constrained or specified in advance. In such cases, speakers may use gesture to explore possible options for how to express that information. 

챕터 7 (155-)

155

- As movements of the body, gestures are actions, albeit representational ones that do not actually manipulate the physical environment.  
- gestures provide perceptual experiences 
- Gesture as Simulated Action (GSA) 프레임워크는 
    - which claims that gestures emerge from **perceptual representations** and **links with action** that are formed in the minds of speakers. We then consider how gestures’ relationship to perceptual-motor representations might play a functional role in strengthening those representations in the minds of speakers. 

156

- Researchers who argue for the **embodiment of cognition** claim 
    - (1) that psychological processes are grounded in the sensorimotor(감각운동) system 
    - and (2) that **action is an integral part of perception** (see Glenberg, Witt, & Metcalfe, 2013 for a review). 
    - Thus, perceptual judgments are not the result of abstract calculations, but involve activation of our own previous, current, and expected sensorimotor experiences.  (간단한 거리 감각에도 얼마나 그 거리에 도달하기까지 에너지가 필요한가에 따라서 더 멀리 느껴지며, 누가 총을 들고 있는가 아닌가는 우리 스스로가 총을 들고 있느냐 아닌가로 판단된다)

157 (GSA의 연구들)

- **The GSA framework** follows the claims of embodied cognition more **generally to assert that when speakers talk about perceptual and motor experiences**, they activate perceptual-motor representations of those experiences, and **these representations reactivate the same neural areas that were involved in actually having or observing those experiences**. 지각적 운동적 경험의 제스처를 할때 실제로 두뇌의 그 부분을 액티베이트시킨다.

158

- For example, speakers gesture more when they are describing spatial or motoric information than when they are describing abstract information (Alibali, 2005). 

159

- Hostetter (2014) found that speakers gestured at high rates both when describing highly motoric objects (e.g., tools) and when speaking to a listener who could see their gestures. 
- Although the framework is termed Gesture as Simulated *Action*, this should not be taken to imply that the framework excludes gestures that occur with per- ceptual representations (such as thinking about the size or shape of an object). 

160

- judgments of size and distance of objects are affected by our own past and anticipated experiences with those objects (e.g., Witt & Proffitt, 2005). 
- Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that **viewing an object with a particular shape activates a motor plan for how to grasp or use the object (Bub, Masson, & Cree, 2008)** as well as a motor plan for **how to trace the shape of the object** (Bach, Griffiths, Weigelt, & Tipper, 2010). 
- It is also not unusual for speakers to gesture as **they describe something that they have only read about** and have not directly experienced. 
    - embodied cognition is that psychological processes are grounded in the sensorimotor system (e.g., Glenberg et al., 2013); such psychological processes include reading. 

168

- This means that gestures can be thought of as highlighting perceptual-motor representations in two ways. 
    1. Gestures’ perceptual-motor representations’ production signals that a particular kind of representation is formed in the speakers’ mind, mainly one that reactivates the neural experience of the perceptual and motor event the speaker is describing.
    2. The motor plan involved in gesture can strengthen the speakers’ representation, which can affect how easy it is for the speaker to attend to, remember, or describe gestured elements of that representation 

챕터 17(381-

381

- When we say here that **gestures are representational actions**, we mean that they are meaningful substitutions and analogical stand-ins for ideas, objects, actions, relations, etc. 
- 여기서 **representational** 의 사용은 representational gesture (a category of gestures that look like the ideas and items to which they refer (i.e., iconic and metaphoric gestures) 와 혼동되면 안된다. ➡︎ **apply to all types of nonconventional gestures**, including representational gestures (iconics, metaphorics), deictic gestures (points), and even beat gestures (rhythmic movements closely coordinated with speech). 

382

- Gesture is *action*in that it involves movements of the body. 
- 하지만 제스처는 다른 방식의 액션이다.
- one that *represents* the world rather than directly impacting the world.

Properties of a Movement to be Identified as a Gesture

382-3 — Processing movement as gesture

- 재현적인 제스처는 비재현적인 제스처와의 구별이 필요하다. 
- 이 부분은 왜 사람들이 움직임을 제스처로 보게 만드는가를 설명한다.
- 첫번째 조건으로는 **빈 손**이다 ➡︎ 하지만 모든 빈 손(춤이나 운동)이 제스처로 인식되진 않는다. ➡︎ However, unlike dance or exercise, the movement itself is *not* the goal of a gesture. 

384 — The unique functions of gesture in communication, problem solving, and learning

- 제스처와 다른 움직임은 인식적으로 분리된다는 benefits가 있다.

202004131729 — The place of Artists’ Cinema

Reference: Maeve Connolly, The Place of Artists’ Cinema: Space, Site and Screen (Bristol: Intellect, 2009)

Chapter 5

165

  • Recent years have seen a new wave of artists directing feature films devised for theatrical exhibition. Profiling ‘Hollywood’s New Wave’ in 2006, Linda Yablonsky claims that ‘more and more artists are directing feature films with large casts, big budgets, and elaborate story lines’.
    • Linda Yablonsky, ‘Hollywood’s New Wave’, ARTNews, (December 2006): 112–117. One might also add works that use well-known film actors such as James Coleman’s Retake with Evidence (2007), featuring a monologue by Harvey Keitel.
  • Douglas Gordon and Philippe Parreno’s Zidane: A 21st Century Portrait (2006) as a example
    • And Shirin Neshat, Pipilotti Rist and Piotr Uklanski
    • Sam Taylor-Wood and also Steve McQueen’s Hunger (2008)
Sam Taylor-Wood and also Steve McQueen’s Hunger (2008)
  • It could be argued, however, that Warhol’s work also remains significant for the current generation because it contested the limits of the theatrical exhibition context.

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  • Venice Biennale
    • By the late 1990s, self-consciously cinematic moving image installations had emerged as a notable feature of the Biennale.
    • Turbulent by Shirin Neshat and Consolation Service by Eija-Liisa Ahtila
  • Giardini di Castello
    • Functioning as emblems (or at least relics) of national identity, the situation of the pavilions in the Grardini specifically foregrounds the relationship between landscape design, public spectacle and the material architecture of modernity.
  • any structure ‘built for the convenience of spectators’ and described the pavilion as ‘spectacular architecture that embraced the very spectacle of modern life’.
    • She also proposes a direct parallel with cinema, understood as a ‘quintessential public space: and inclusive place of social gathering and public transit as well as a site of spectacle’.
      • *Bruno, Public Intimacy, 57.

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  • 작가는 부루노의 주장을 반대하며, 파빌리옹과 시네마의 다른 점을 강조한다. 지아디니 디 카스텔로 파빌리옹은 프로젝트 이미지를 위해 만들어진 공간이 아니며, 건축적 요소들은 프랙틸컬함에 의해서 선택된 것이다.
  • 최근의 시네마와 건축의 교차는 불규칙한 explorations of architecture and design by artist.
    • Alex Coles historicizes this current in a short article on ‘Pavilions’, which references works by Rodchenko, Schwitters and Allan Kaprow among others.
      • 또한 Dan Graham과 올라푸 엘리슨을 그 대표주자로 바라봤는데, 그는 Olafur Eliasson와 Dan Graham을 파빌리옹을 시네마 전시를 이을 작가로 주목한다.
      • 그러나 또한, Alex Coles은 , ‘Pavilions’ 에서 두 작가의 가장 큰 차이점을 지적했는데
        • Graham의 파빌리옹은 ‘bring the beholder back to the surface of the work and so insist that they reflect on the act of beholding itself’,
  • 또한 그라햄의 작업은 막다른 길에 다다를 수밖에 없다며 그가 컨셉츄얼하게 건축물에 접근하면서 컨템의 아트의 디자인을 향한 바운더리를 깨는 것에 실패한다고 보았다.
    • 그의 다른 작업 Cinema (1981)의 경우 설계도면과 글로만 존재하며, 유리면을 통해서 안과 밖에서 동시에 필름을 보게 할수 있게했다.
  • Eliasson offers a ‘less cerebral and more phantasmagoric experience’.
  • Alex Coles, ‘Pavilions’, Art Monthly 308, (July–August 2007): 3.

168

  • Chrissie Iles의 경우 현재 많은 컨템 아티스트들의 explorations of cinema는 likely to be mediated by memory and nostalgia associated with the materiality of celluloid.
    • Deadpan (Steve McQueen, 1997)
    • Trailer for a Remake of Gore Vidal’s Caligula (Francesco Vezzoli, 2006)
    • 그 이유에 대해 셀루로이드가 ‘in crisis’에 있다고 보며 Kodak (Tacita Dean, 2006)를 그 예시로 든다.
  • 그러나 글쓴이는 시네마틱의 크라이스가 주 주제가 아닌 작품들이 있다고 주장한다.
    • In fact, the articulation of a love of cinema, at the moment of its ‘loss’, may be linked to other forms of anxiety and nostalgia, articulated across a variety of practices, in a range of production and exhibition contexts where the relationship between cultural memory and public space is foregrounded.
    • 그 예시로 Anthony Vidler ➡︎ ‘architectural uncanny’, ‘warped space’, 컨셉으로 focuses on the potential of architecture to both mark a place (as landmark) and articulate a response to it.
      • He is also interested in ways in which physical place may be mediated by virtual rather than material experiences of time and space.
      • 그 예시로 Rachel Whiteread’s House 의 작업을 들며, the focus of much discussion at the time of its production and subsequent demolition, illustrates a certain anxiety about contemporary forms of spatiality.
  • According to Vidler, the proliferation of the ‘void’, in works such as House is linked to a discernible nostalgia for space at the end of the twentieth-century. – (169) There is not only no room for us in House, there is no space left either. Space is both denied and destroyed; filled, where a modernist or postmodernist sensibility would demand that it be opened.
    • Antony Vidler, Warped Space: Art, Architecture and Anxiety in Modern Culture (London;Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press, 2000) 236.
  • – it indicates the extent to which the experience of even an unquestionably physical artefact may be shaped by anxieties concerning emptiness or absence. – It is also possible to understand the fear of the ‘void’ through reference to the theorizations of public space that are advanced by Rosalyn Deutsche, among others, and discussed in Chapter 3. Emphasizing that democracy actually derives its legitimacy from ‘the image of an empty place’,
    • ::See Rosalyn Deustche, Evictions: Art and Spatial Politics (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1996) 273.::
    • ::Vidler, Anthony, Warped Space: Art, Architecture, and Anxiety in Modern Culture (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 2000)::

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  • Roberts argues that because digital (as opposed to ‘archival’) mediums are concerned with the delivery of information and with direct networks of communications,
    • any kind of informational translation of experience to be passed on from one location to another’
      • There are two key points here:
        • firstly, Roberts suggests that in the ‘archival’ medium, time participates in the creation of space through the separation of one moment from the next,
        • and secondly, she emphasizes that the archival is aligned with processes of translation.
        • 결국 디지털 미디어에서 시간과 공간은 트렌스래이션의 프로세스로 지정되는데 하나의 데이터 공간 안으로 ‘트렌스레이션’ 되는 것을 통해서 시간이 지정된다.

179

  • Proposing ‘hauntology’ as a counterpoint (or corrective) to Marx’s ontology, Derrida argues that the ghost first makes its appearance in use-value. He contends that it is impossible to locate a ‘pure use’ in advance of commodification because of the repetition that is necessarily associated with use-value.
    • Use cannot be determined, he proposes, without some form of repetition, which should be understood as ‘substitution, exchangeability, iterability, the loss of singularity as the experience of singularity itself, the possibility of capital’.
      • ::Jacques Derrida, Specters of Marx: The State of the Debt, the Work of Mourning and the New International, Trans. Peggy Kamuf, (London and New York: Routledge, 1994) 202::
    • there, even before its first appearance.

180

  • 다른 아티스트들이 Vezzoli를 예시로 theatricality of the cinema and Demans offers a more metaphorical exploration of cinematic illusion and the commodity form
    • 그 예시로 ➡︎ Kultur und Freizeit (Culture and Leisure) is the title of Andreas Fogarasi’s installation
      • Andreas Fogarasi Kultur und Freizeit, 2007 Installation, Hungarian Pavilion, Biennale di Venezia 2007 Photo: Tihanyi-Bakos-Fotostudio Courtesy: Georg Kargl Fine Arts, Vienna

186

  • The Cinema Machine: Venetian, Atmospheric (Tobias Putrih, 2007)
    • He(Putrih) argues that while the creation of objects served as ‘as a counter-statement’, the exploration of cinema structures and forms offered a ‘place of equilibrium’.
    • It’s an “in-between” space: between the reality of the sidewalk and the fiction of the projection’.
      • ::Tobias Putrih, interviewed by Nataša Petrešin, ‘On Quasi-scientific Experiments, Collectively Built Objects and Random Structures’, in Tobias Putrih, Venetian, Atmospheric, 52nd International Art Exhibition La Biennale di Venezia, Slovenian Pavilion, Exhibition Catalogue (Ljubljana, 2007) 5.::

198

  • Reflections of State and Subject: [in,the] visible state (Bea McMahon, 2008)
  • Although physically separated, the projections are synchronised, creating a dialogue between images, sounds and texts so that a sentence that appears on one screen is completed on the other.
  • The screens are coated with buttermilk so that their surfaces become clouded and opaque

202

  • Bea McMahon’s strategy draws attention to the materiality of the installation and to the role of reflection in the creation of a video projection.

Conclusion: Materials, Places and Social Relations

211

  • Artists’ cinema is not aligned with any one mode of production or exhibition and many of the works I have discussed are not specifically concerned with the materiality of film.
    • Nonetheless, it is possible to discern a recovery of materiality, or perhaps a kind of ‘re-materialization’, in the relatively small number of works that assert the specificity of place by emphasizing the evidential and indexical qualities of film.
      • Commenting upon the exhibition of artists’ cinema in museums, Lars Henrik Gass recently noted that the latter are often complicit in the ‘re-auratisation of the technical image in the art world’ while at the same time demonstrating a ‘careless, cavalier approach to context and presentation’ of film works.
        • Lars Henrik Gass, ‘Afterword: After the Cinema’, Kinomuseum: Towards an Artists’ Cinema, eds. Mike Sperlinger and Ian White (Cologne: Verlag der Buchhandlung Walther König, 2008) 158.
    • In my view this issue cannot be understood solely through an analysis of the ‘technical image’, or the indexical qualities of film.
  • Chapter 1
    • I considered the possibility that the prevalence of the projected image in contemporary art practice might, by virtue of its very immateriality, somehow index the ‘unrepresentability’ of contemporary experience.
      • ::이건 아마도 ephemeral, void::
      • rise of a post-productive free-floating capitalism.
  • Chapter 3
    • I argued that the rise of the multi-screen video projection during the 1990s was informed by a broader staging of ‘publicness’ within contemporary art museums, particularly those associated with urban regeneration programmes.
      • Willie Doherty’s Re-Run. Doherty’s work is marked not only by an engagement with film structure and form but also by a self-reflexive exploration of site and setting within artists’ cinema.
  • several works where the relationship between event and document is complicated by a deliberate intertwining of the temporalities of production and exhibition, in which the ‘replay’ becomes folded into the event, most obviously in various works by Pierre Huyghe.
    • (111) My use of the term ‘event-site’ is also informed by Pierre Huyghe’s claim that the ‘replay’ now supersedes the event itself, to the extent that representation of the event is now routinely incorporated into the conception of the project. Before addressing the relationship between
  • site, event and document, some broader issues concerning the concept of location in both installation practice and film production should be noted.
    • ::Pierre Huyghe in George Baker, ‘An Interview with Pierre Huyghe’, October 110 (Fall 2004): 83.::

217

  • The supposed shift from material to immaterial labour has also structured much of the discourse surrounding Nicolas Bourriaud’s account of ‘post-production’. Roberts contends that Bourriaud’s thinking is directly indebted to a ‘bio-computational’ model of authorship.
    • In parallel with this move from citation to ‘flow’ in art practice, Robert emphasises that contemporary art museums have shifted their focus away from display and toward forms of cultural production that are characterised by a low artistic visibility.
    • He seems to read this development in terms of an institutional strategy to redefine (or perhaps rebrand) the museum as a site of ‘cultural flow’ rather than ‘a site of cultural domination’.

218

  • Sacredness is making a comeback here, there and everywhere. In a muddled way we are hoping for the return of the traditional aura…A phase in the modern project is being wound up. Today, after two centuries of struggle for singularity and against group impulses, we must bring in a new synthesis which, alone, will be able to save us from the regressive fantasy that is abroad. Reintroducing the idea of plurality, for contemporary culture hailing from modernity, means inventing ways of being together, forms of interaction that go beyond the inevitability of the families, ghettos of technological user-friendliness, and collective institution on offer.
    • ::Nicolas Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, (Dijon: Les Presses du Reel, 2002) 60. Emphasis added.::
  • According to Bourriaud, the public, in the form of the ‘micro-community’ gathering in front of the image, is the source of the aura: ‘the aura of art no longer lies in the hinter-world represented by the work, nor in form itself, but in front of it, within the temporary collective form that it produces being put on show’.
    • ::Bourriaud, Relational Aesthetics, 61.::
  • But even if the limits of the temporary collectivity or micro- community described by Bourriaud are all too apparent, the staging of the cinematic, whether through technologies of projection or architectures of display, can involve some form of reflection upon the structures and processes through which experiences of collectivity are constituted.
    • ::이 부분은 동의한다. 기기적인 프로젝션이건 건축적 display건 비판적 critique::
  • My research into the place of artists’ cinema responds directly to the pronounced visibility of certain forms of artists’ film and video over the past decade, across multiple contexts of contemporary art production and exhibition. There is some evidence to suggest that this era of high visibility may now be coming to an end.
    • it may be that the tendency to overtly and visibly stage the cinematic through projection, site or setting might be waning.
      • 그래서 어떤 possibbiliies 란 말인가?
    • Many of the works discussed towards the close of my study are marked by an awareness of the screen as a physical structure, and the cinema as setting for a collective experience.
      • Yet in some recent examples, the display of the projected image is deliberately frustrated, as in the case of Bea McMahon’s [in,the] visible state or Aurélien Froment’s White Balance.
    • Although the notion of ‘artists’ cinema’ seems destined (like television) to become increasingly anachronistic, the works discussed should continue to merit attention beyond the context of contemporary art practice. Ultimately, even when artists’ claims upon cinema are open to contestation, they still have the potential to inform an understanding of its history, its present and, perhaps most importantly, its future.

202003290348 — Media-archaeology and Artist: Rear‐View Mirror

202003290348 — Media-archaeology and Artist: Rear‐View Mirror

Reference: Erkki Huhtamo, ‘Art in the Rear‐View Mirror: The Media‐Archaeological Tradition in Art’, in A Companion to Digital Art, ed. by Christiane Paul (Chichester, West Sussex ; Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons Inc, 2016), 69-


일반학자들과 미디어 고고학과의 관계

69

  • Devices that have disappeared not only as material artifacts but even from cultural memory have been unearthed, dissected, reinvented, and combined with ideas from other times and places.  
  • Intellectually and emotionally challenging works are created by ambitious artists who have done their historical homework. 

70

  • By exploring forms like panoramas and stereoscopy, artists such as Jeffrey Shaw, Michael Naimark, and Luc Courchesne—although producing works that were contemporary high‐tech creations—were also implying that there was a technological past worth exploring.
  • (글쓴이의 질문) I began questioning the discursive construction of contemporary media culture, wondering what may have been hidden behind its dominant utopian and “progressivist” narratives. 
  • In idiosyncratic ways everyone was animated by a desire to question the prevailing “grand narratives” about technology, science, and media.  ➡︎ 커다란 내러티브란건 정말 있기는 한걸까
  • Influenced by Michel Foucault’s archaeology of knowledge, they began exploring the archives for omissions, undetected or masked ruptures, and dark corners. 

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  • Media archaeology questions technological determinism by emphasising the multiplicity of the factors that affect historical agents at any one moment and contribute to the formation of media culture. 
  • (키틀러와 맥루한의 차이점) The human remained the center of McLuhan’s thinking, whereas for Kittler the onslaught of technological devices used for the “inscription” and storage of words, sounds, images, and numerical data pointed toward the posthuman condition, where humans would disappear and history come to an end2 (Kittler 1990). 
  • 키틀러의 경우 특별히 스스로 미디어 고고학으로 지칭하지 않았으나 데리다의 탈구축이론 deconstructionism, 라캉의 정신분석학, 그리고 푸코의 지식의 고고학에 영향을 받았다.

아티스트와미디어고고학시작

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  • “The point is confirmed: history is a story of loss and recovery and comes to us in bits and pieces,” The Gesualdo Hex(2010) 
  • Most importantly, the results of the excavations made by artists are expressed by different means. Instead of being translated into the meta‐language of words, artworks often re‐enact features of the excavated object itself. 
  • Like artists, media archaeologists travel between tempo- ralities, comparing them, juxtaposing them, and persuading them to illuminate each other. 
  • To be worth being identified as media‐archaeological, an artwork must evoke earlier media in one way or another. Such works can be treated as “metacommentaries” on media culture, its motifs, its structures, and its ideological, social, psychological, and economic implications (Huhtamo 1995b). 
  • 미디어-고고학 아트는 1980 후기쯤에 시작한 것으로 보인다. 초기 contributions 스콜러들 (Huhtamo and Parikka 2011, 3, 6–7, 14) 
    • Aby Warburg
    • Walter Benjamin
    • Dolf Sternberger 
    • Ernst Robert Curtius
  • 아티스트들
    • 모더니스트 eschewed the past
      • Le Corbusier
      • Walter Gropius
      • Kasimir Malevich
      • Piet Mondrian
    • 퓨처리스트
      • Filippo Tommaso Marinetti 의 리드
    • Kirk Varnedoe and Adam Gopnik’s exhibition catalogue High and Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture(Varnedoe and Gopnik 1990) 

73

  • 비록 학자들과 아티스트들이 멀게는 르네상스 시대부터 미디어에 대한 아이디어를 차용했지만 
    • Aby Warburg’s pioneering research demonstrated, the references mostly concerned styles and motifs—Warburg’s “pathos formulas” (Michaud 2004, 7–9 and passim)—rather than tools and conditions of visual illusions. 
    • 다다이스트, 초현실주의 (특정지을 수 없는 아티스트들) Marcel Duchamp, Frederick Kiesler 가 아마도 처음으로 테크놀로지와 conversational relationship 을 발전시킨 케이스일 것이다.
      • 다다이스트 예시) Francis Picabia’s Dadaist paintings of machines are early examples (Pontus Hultén 1968, 82–95) 

  • 초현실주들은 극도로 past의 archived plundered (약탈) 하였는데 
    • using them[past archived] as repositories for ideas to s(t)imulate the operations of the unconscious mind. Max Ernst 막스에른스트’s graphic novels La femme 100 têtes(1929) and Rêve d’une petite fille qui foulut entrer au carmel(1930) demonstrated how popular illustrations from magazines, encyclopedias, children’s books, and other sources could be turned into uncanny collages that penetrated beyond the rational surface of bourgeois normality while preserving traces of their actual referents.

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  • 두샴은 “미디어 아티스트”는 아니지만 적은 숫자의 아티스트들만이 그보다 미디어와 complex한 relationship 을 develop했다.
    • 예를들어서 는 chronophotography 를 연상시킨다.
  • Posing as an optician‐scientist, Duchamp bridged the past and the present, combining 3D with 4D. 
  • 그중에서도 가장 complex media-archaeological contribution은 Étant donnés: 1. la chute d’eau, 2. le gaz déclairage

Art, Technology, and the Past 50s/60s

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  • has 60/70년대의 구성주의, 네오 다다이즘, 실험주의 아티스트, 
    • More intense, indirect approach to constructing functioning devices to administer visual and auditory experiences for their audiences. Yet, no consensus about the implications of the human–machine relationship was reached. 
    • the constructivist line continued the anti‐passéist agenda of early 20th‐century modernists 
    • It was the neo‐Dadaist trend that drew inspiration from the past, making ambiguous and impish references to “obsolete” cultural forms and mixing them with products and ideas from contemporary culture. 

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  • Experimental artists of the 1960s did not ignore media history, but it was rarely their major concern. 
    • 예를 들어 Stan Vanderbeek 의 경우 Movie‐ Drome(1963) 
  • 하지만 이 경우도 무빙 이미지 컬처를 reinvetion하는 것이 목적이었지 미디어 히스토리는 중심이 아니었다.
  • 다른 예시로는 Brion Gysin and Ian Sommerville’s Dream Machine (or Dreamachine, 1961). 
  • 과거 zoetrope 와의 공통점이 제시되지만, one should also consider the differences related to function and the context of invention and use. 
    • Gysin characterized the sensation with a media‐related metaphor as “a multidimensional kaleidoscope whirling out through space” (diary entry, December 21, 1958, quoted in Weiss 2001, 113). 
    • Gysin wanted to produce a machine for creating the kinds of sensations he had experienced. (“spontaneous hallucinations” he experienced on a bus trip in southern France)
    • The zoetrope was a moving picture machine, whereas the *Dream Machine*was meant to tease out images assumed to pre‐exist in the user’s mind. 

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  • The Dream Machinedeserves a place in the history of media‐archaeological art, because it belongs to a tradition running from the “natural magic” of 17th‐century Jesuits to kaleidoscopes, phenakistiscopes, and zoetropes, quack machines for healing with light, and kinetic artworks such as Duchamp’s Rotoreliefs and  Schöffer Nicolas’s Le Lumino(1968) and *Varetra*(1975). 

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  • 다른 예시로는 Alfons Schilling (1934–2013) 
    • Duchamp’s disks always produced discrete figures in motion (including their pulsating illusions of depth), whereas Schilling’s rotating paintings emphasized the fusion of colors and shapes when spun. 
  • As Max Peintner has shown, Schilling’s contraptions were deeply rooted in the history of perspectival imaging, joining the broad tradition of perspective machines, katoptric experiments, and optical prostheses described by Martin Kemp in his book Science of Art(Kemp 1990; Schilling 1997). 
  • Alfons Schilling과의 다른 비교 예시로는 American Jim Pomeroy (1945–1992) 

Jim Pomeroy, Stereo Views “From Artpark 1987…”, reel 2, 1988

  • Schilling’s stance was cool and formal; he called himself an “artist and visual thinker” or “artist and innovator,” and rarely paid much attention to thematic social and cultural issues. Pomeroy was colorful and eclectic, a manifestation of a long American tradition of enthusiastic self‐taught tinkerers (DeMarinis 1993, 1–15). 
    • Newt Ascending Astaire’s Face(1975) 
  • As Roland Barthes famously demonstrated, photographs can never be sites of incontestable truth. Their meanings depend on cultural coding and textual “anchor- ing” that can be (ab)used for ideological purposes (Barthes 1977, 15–31). 
    • * His later idea, expressed in Camera Lucida: Reflections on Photography(1980, trans. 1981), of the “punctum” partly undermined his earlier semiotic position. 

아방가르드시네마, 필름역사 (중시)주의, Archaeologies of Projection

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  • 아티스트
    • Revisionist film historians Noel Burch, the issue contained material about filmmakers such as Klaus Wyborny who had since the late 1960s incorporated references to early cinema into their works. 
    • Other names could be added to the list: 
      • Ken Jacobs, 
      • Hollis Frampton, 
      • Malcolm LeGrice, 
      • Ernie Gehr, 
      • Robert Breer, 
      • and Werner Nekes. 
        • The latter’s experimental feature film Uliisses(1980–1982) was packed with media‐archaeological references (Nekes 1987). 
  • 50년대와 초기 60년대는 개인적 (myth)poetic works가 주를 이루었다.  Foten with echoes of surrealism. 

☐ 특히 Stan Brakhage  202004011903 — Stan Brakhage

☐ Moth

Some Notes on the Selection of Titles for By Brakhage: An Anthology, Volume Two | The Current | The Criterion Collection

  • 60년대 후기를 지나면서 structural and conceptual forms로 들어섰다. 
    • “cinematic apparatus” (the material‐metapsychological context of the filmic experience) 
    • (Structural filmmaker) Ken Jacobs’s Tom, Tom the Piper’s Son(1969) 의 경우 1905년대의 필름을 늘이고 자르고 줄이면서 짧은 필름을 거의 2시간 가량으로 늘렸다. 그로인해 filmic text를 강제적으로 들어나게 했다.
      • Bart Testa has rightly characterized Tom, Tom the Piper’s Sonas “an archaeological essay in addition to a semiotic genealogy of film language” (Testa 1992, 222–272). 
  • 60 년대에 또 유행을 한 것은 “thumb movies” (adding a tactile dimension to the visual experience) ➡︎ flipbook 은 이미 1860년대에 발명되었다. Englishman John Barnes Linnett in 1868. 
    • 플립북을 만든 다른 익스페리멘탈 필름메이커에는
      • Robert Breer (as early as 1955), 
      • Oskar Fischinger (as Mutoscope reels), 
      • Stan Vanderbeek, 
      • Douglass Crockwell, 
      • Andy Warhol, 
      • Jack Smith, 
      • and Birgit and Wilhelm Hein, 
      • as well as by Fluxus artists like George Brecht, Mieko Shiomi and Dick Higgins. 
  • 70년대에 들어와서는 
    • John Baldessari, 
    • Gilbert & George, 
    • Eduardo Paolozzi 
    • and François Dallegret contributed to the artists’ flipbook tradition. 
  • 지속적으로 만들어져 현재에는 
    • visual artists like Keith Haring, 
    • animation filmmakers like Peter Foldes and Taku Furukawa, 
    • and media artists like Gregory Barsamian and Tony Oursler (Gethmann et al. 2005).
  • Robert Breer also created his own versions of Mutoscope viewers and exhibited his flipbooks as murals (Gethmann et al. 2005, 74). 

81

  • 스콜러
    • The discovery of early cinema by avant‐garde filmmakers became associated with emerging forms of cinema scholarship, 
    • such as writings on the cinematic apparatus (dispositif) by scholars such as Jean‐Louis Comolli and Jean‐Louis Baudry and the “new film historicism” represented by Tom Gunning, André Gaudreault, Noel Burch, Charles Musser, Thomas Elsaesser, Miriam Hansen, and others (Testa 1992, 18). 
    • Gunning demonstrated by discussing the complex relationships between the successive “new beginnings” introduced by avant‐garde cinema and the cinema of the earliest times (Gunning 1983, 355–366). Gunning, Tom. 1983. “An Unseen Energy Swallows Space: The Space in Early Film and Its Relation to American Avant‐Garde Film.” In Film Before Griffith, edited by John L. Fell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    • https://www.rebeccacummins.com/
    • Such “memory lapses” remind us that media‐archaeological excavations should not be limited only to identifying forgotten predecessors and unacknowledged cultural contexts. They must be performed on the terrain of contemporary art as well. 

82

  • Avant‐garde filmmakers extended their explorations to other types of projected images as well. Ken Jacobs, whose profuse work with found footage film had raised issues about the shape of film history since the 1950s, played a central role here by moving into experimental live performance. 
  • 켄 제이콥의 파라시네마는 두개의 섭헤팅으로 나뉜다
    • The Nervous System
      • pair of modified 16 mm film projectors that can project single frames—both forward and backward—and a variable‐speed motorised shutter wheel rotating in front of their lenses 
    • The Nervous Magic Lantern
      • He went further back to the basics. The effects are produced by manipulating light by means of colour filters and spinning wheels. 

83

  • Such “memory lapses” remind us that media‐archaeological excavations should not be limited only to identifying forgotten predecessors and unacknowledged cultural contexts. They must be performed on the terrain of contemporary art as well. 
    • 두개 다 테크노로지컬 시스템으로 have been utilised in series of performances. 
    • Jacobs has since moved both forward and backward in time. The Nervous Magic Lanternretreated to the “primitives” of light, color, and shadows (perhaps echoing the multimedia lightshows of the 1960s), whereas works like Capitalism(2006) extended Schilling’s discoveries into the realm of the digital.  쉴링의 영향
    • Capitalism: Slavery – Ken Jacobs – The Film-Makers’ Cooperative
    • 다른 작가의 예시로는 (whose non-filmic projection works bring up historical precedents) Tony Oursler’s The Influence Machinewas a large‐scale outdoor installation shown in New York and London (Oursler 2000) 
  • Slide Movie—Diafilmprojektor(2006) by Gebhard Sengmüller 

뉴미디어아트, 미디어고고학, 여성미디어아티스트. (80년대)

84

  • In the 1980s a growing number of artists began creating installations in which digital technology played a central role. 
  • 갤러리 방문지를 physically interact 시키는 것이 주요 특징이다. “Grand narrative” of techno culture around 1990 을 evoke 하는 것도 특징이다.
  • 이러한 작업들은 특정적으로 과거를 언급하진 않지만, 매우 많은 작업들이 그렇게 했다. which may have reflected the uncertainties about media culture at the time. 
  • In 1994, I considered the appearance of this approach as a sign of the times (콜드워의 종식 테레토리얼, 문화적 큰 변화), as proof that “media art is gradually reaching maturity, but it also implies a certain anxiety (Huhtamo 1994c).” 

85

  • The reference point behind 
    • The Banff Kinetoscope, or Field Recording Studies(1993–1994) by Michael Naimark,

  • The Virtual Body(1994) by Catherine Richards, 
  • “at once a scientific instrument, an aesthetic object, and a postmodern magic box,” is a column‐like viewer with a video simulation of a rococo salon inside. 
  • * Curiosity Cabinet at the End of the Millennium
  • and A Dialogue with Hunger(1993) by Heidi Tikka’s works is the long history of “peep media” (the practice of peeking at hidden images through lenses), but they dealt with it in very different ways (Huhtamo 2006). At Hand, movable touch installation

86-88

  • 페미니스트 이론과 관계를 조명한다
    • There has been an extraordinary amount of interest in media‐archaeological approaches among female artists (although not always explicitly defined as such by the artists themselves). One could argue that this must have something to do with the parallels between media archaeology, feminist theory, and women’s history. Much like media archaeologists, feminist theorists and women’s historians are engaged in activities aimed at uncovering suppressed phenomena and discourses, combating narratives converted into “truths” in the male‐dominated society. 

이야기, Alternative Archaeologies of Moving Images and Sound

89

  • 미디어 고고학의 레퍼런스들은 포스트모던의 문화의 급증을 바탕으로 한 경우가 많으며, 광범위하게 적용하는 것은 더이상 가능하지 않다. 그중에서도 꾸준하게 makes sense하는 아티스트에는 
    • Toshio Iwai “Another Evolution of the Moving Image.” 

91

  • The story of morphovision’s development is a good example of Iwai’s media‐ archaeological approach (Iwai, 2005b). 
  • Paul DeMarinis “Another Evolution of the Sound Image.” Paul DeMarinis
  • I think that by carefully studying the histories of current day technologies, we can uncover insights into the constellation of human and technical arrangements that can help to projectively crystallize an understanding of the real nature of our current condition. This is based on my prejudice that cultures have long‐standing currents of agenda—over hundreds of years and often unspoken—and that technologies, like the rest of material culture, are a reification of these agendas. They are neither dis- coveries nor neutral. They come out of the dreams of people and offer indications of social relations. (Pritikin 2012) 

92

  • Applying Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblance to Iwai’s output, one could suggest that his practice forms a web of interconnected ideas in a state of constant transformation. 
  • The old meets the new, low tech meets high tech. Iwai has made numerous forays into entertainment and design, even designing a raincoat from new super non‐absorbent material that makes it possible to play with the raindrops—to enjoy the rain. He has also applied ideas from his art installations to museum displays. 

93

  • 이와이가 테크놀로지의 Natural magic 을 그린다면 이마리니즈는 DeMarinis builds machinic artworks that sing, speak, transmit messages, and resonate culturally in the observer’s mind. 
  • 이 두 아티스트의 차이
    • DeMarinis is a learned artist‐researcher, who also finds inspiration in forgotten patent documents and old books of science and technology. So is Iwai, but in a different sense. For Iwai the device—the technical apparatus—is the center of everything, a mechanism full of unrealized potential
    • 디마리니즈의 질문은 ➡︎ His creations seem to be asking: What hap- pened? What did not happen? What would have happened, if …? What would hap- pen, if …? 

95

  • DeMarinis’s work undermines simple deterministic ideas. In typical manner, he wrote in connection with The Messenger: “there is no inherent bi‐directionality in electrical communication” (DeMarinis 2010b, 240). 
  • DeMarinis’s works with radios reveal parallels with the interests of hackers and techno‐hobbyists. 

결론

98

  • diversity 로 인해 Fitting all this—and other unnamed things—under a neat conceptual umbrella and classifying everything under a limited set of headings would be impossible, and per- haps not even desirable. 
  • Generalizations of any kind are risky, but it may not be incorrect to say that all experimental art strives for the indeterminate and the unchained, even when highly structured. 
  • The Internet, in particular, is a huge topos storage area and accelerator. 
  • Access to channels of information is a precondition for developing a media‐archaeological awareness. The emergence of interest in early silent films in the 1960s and 1970s had to do with new possibilities of seeing such works in film archives and clubs and on television. 

99

  • the media‐archaeological turn has something to do with an overarching, partly uncontrolled and troubling transition that is underway in media culture. 
  • To return to McLuhan’s metaphor evoked at the beginning of this study, gazing into the rear‐view mirror is a necessary precondition for finding routes—scenic, exciting, and safe, although not necessarily the quickest and the most direct—to navigate into the future.  ⬅︎ 이게 이 사람 목적이네.

Journey to the Seaside and honest back story of my work

What is the nature of making art? If it is not simply about fashioning forms and colours, then it has to do with the production of meaning…If you begin there you realize that potentially everything is material for art, because at some point it has to have an aspect of concretion and must be framed in relation to people’s lives.

Stuart Morgan, and Joseph Kosuth, ‘Art as Idea as Idea: An Interview with Joseph Kosuth’, Frieze, 6 May 1994 <https://frieze.com/article/art-idea-idea> [accessed 22 February 2020]

Yes, I love seaside. From my background, there should always be a reason why that content. but since I had a conversation with my loving friend,

What truly important is seeking what you really want. What feeling you want to present? How do you feel recently? What is your thinking about this bittersweet life? So, I decided to go to seaside again and make a video with it. I want to put that place name as secret because that would be only my place and intimate place of mine, where someday I would like to bring someone to show how I felt that times.

Yes… There was so many trouble
I finally found my place
And I started shooting

Honestly, I never used this Canon XA10(it was only one remained at uni’s resources store…,) I had no idea what kind of images I can get from it. I was afraid because it was a challenge with the unknown. The place where I’d planned to go, because I already been there, I knew what viewpoint I could get. But that new place was totally unknown, and I should believe my instinct (well that’s life babe.) It doesn’t matter how the image’s quality is high or best colour or not, it is still my image. I had a rough idea that I wanted to make, but real work starts when you really move your hands and begin to do something.

Honest Story

I love to make. It is an exciting experience that I’m actualise something that only existed in my imagination. Although I had a plan, it doesn’t mean that I know why I am doing right now, it can remain a lot of questions. Why sea wave? Why that composition? Why am I making this? Why is tactile or touching so important? After I finished editing, I tried to get the answer to this work; then I realised that I should go back to personal memory.

I remember that hand. No, I am thinking that hand right now. That moment, I didn’t see that hand, but by sense, I could see how it stroked my heart and my hand. I didn’t care in front of the street; how I worked, how was the sky, I just wanted to feel that hand. And I still can see it as if it is happening in front of me. As a third person, I can see in front of me. It is surprising how that small part of the body could create that much sensation. Each of my fingers, fingertips, between the fingers, touched another fingers, fingertips, between the fingers. I don’t remember surrounding, just fingers and warmth of the hand in the dark black hole. It hurt because there was an ending, I knew even that time, it will be end soon. But, no I am not sad because it finished, that long and the short moment has already distilled within my memory, became a violent wave, continuously crush my head and heart. The face faded away from my eyes, that skin scent evaporated from my nose, that warmth cooled in my heart, but that image of touch remained everywhere. It has extracted into the sense of eyes, as a looping memory, possess it as mine and possessed by it.

I never expressed how I felt at that time. Verbal communication is always hard to deliver. The simple words cannot show everything I want to say. I do not know even there was something between hand; I never asked about that moment. Perhaps I was afraid that if there was only one hand. Perhaps I was afraid as soon as I verbalised that memory it would vanish from the memory as if it was just my imagination, never happened in my life.

So, I made this video. I visualised that hand. Metaphorical wave crushes everywhere and touches your eyes from a distance. It never ends, or it ever moves. In the video, visual and sonic senses composed into the one image, but tactile. Is that intentional? Or just I couldn’t deliver the tactility of it?

It’s gone now. Remained only perhaps, maybe or never. But looping.

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