Dark Media – Georges Méliès

The fantastical element of Méliès’s films is to be able to see what media and mediation usually don’t make visible— this is why Méliès’s films are about film, and more broadly, about technological mediation. What is not mediated, only one can gain through the mediation.

Long Distance Wireless Photography (1908) Georges Méliès

The Mysterious Retort – Georges Méliès (1905)

The Black Imp – Georges Méliès (1905)

p85 The most perfect mediation comes in The Black Imp, in the form of demonic possession; but for us as viewers to realize this, it must be remediated as a special-effects film, and we must be shown the demon, so that we can go back to viewing the scene “as if” the demon isn’t there.
  • Socrates and Plato -> communication is the presence
  • Heidegger and hermeneutics turn -> communication is the interpretation
  • Habermas and discussions over the public sphere -> communication is discourse).
  • Frankfurt school and Adorno, Horkheimer -> culture industry as technologies of domination.
  • Walter Benjamin -> form of reproducibility. ( Through which media escape property and become the perceptual apparatus adequate to the revolutionary tasks of the working class.
  • Toronto school -> media-ecological approach, which oscillates between the categories of bias and synthesis.
  • British and French -> synthesise culture, language, and ideology. Raymond William(Roland Barthes+Louis Althusser => generalise the category of the text beyond the literary, cultural studies came to emphasise the oscillations between writing and reading, or between encoding decoding.
It is not a new link in the grand chain of critical theory, literary criticism, cultural studies, or visual culture. Rather, it exits the chain entirely, turning ninety degrees away from these disciplines. Media theory ~intersects art theory, screen theory, science studies, the history of technology~, and many other fields.

Design – Directed, controlled, and persuasive

The frame started its history accompany with the image. It shifted its form from the spatial environment, virtual image, spatial object, and once again into the spatial and time-based environment.

In cinema, it is possible to speak message through the narrative or by actor’s line. The narrative consists of the movement of the shot and changing the scene, and linear timeline. In design, rhetoric leads a role as a speaking person. Meaning of the term rhetoric “the art of using language so as to persuade or influence others.” It could be a colour and a form which contains information about the speech. As soon as the move from concept to visible manifestation is made, and especially to a manifestation as highly organised as a timetable, then the means used become rhetorical. Another definition of rhetoric might be tried, the art of directed communication – directed, that is, both internally to organise the material communication and externally to persuade an audience. Moreover, rhetoric in design can be delivered by another form/medium. To persuade or influence, narrative and rhetoric are shifting the form ‘frame’ as a directed vision. As the frame guide the order of the image in the comic books or traditional Egyptian wall painting, it implies the order of the event and strengthens the message, as narrative and time does in the cinema frame.

Technologies open narratives and make the construction of navigatable and immersive narrative environment. Now, each frame does not shows fixed and decided narrative, but exchangeable and discovered. Now, not only viewers gaze moves, and subject in the narrative’s movement influence message. However, The movement of the UK’s government shows that the frame could make two separate stories into one. The frame in the Youtube channels applied cinematic language, for example, ‘cinema mode’.

The impact of the frame, I believe, is not only limited within the interface but also individual laptop screen. The narrative or rhetoric is already made to some degree and the user opens their device up. The physical frame is not playing a role as a spatial environment that configuring the image. Expanded physical frame space, such as multi-user, distributed, mobile, ubiquitous, wearable, mixed reality, increasingly broaden the range of experimental representation.

On the other hand, within the interface, which is controlled by system and operators offered imagery inhabited information spaces, ‘typical results are self-reflexive products where the ideological underpinnings of their commercial stratagems remain unchanged (Shaw, 2012)’. No matter how much new digital technologies seduced the user with an enhanced image, ‘they tend to promulgate reactionary paradigms of the cinematic experience and of societal engagement with new media (Shaw, 2012)’. This comment can be interpreted in a way that, this is the time to design language at interface should be studied toward a new type of the language.

The cinematic imaginary dominates screen world. However, the distortion of the experience derived by the physicality of the frame, the immateriality of the new media, and old design language is greatest ever before. The messages easily become perverse and misdelivered. The noise of the language widens the creativity of the imagery. However, we should wisely distinguish between noise and distortion.


Shaw, J., 2012. New-media art and the renewal of the cinematic imaginary. Technoetic Arts, 10(2), pp.173–177.




Mockup setting process document

  1. Setting Takes too long time -> need to change to wire
  2. Window cabinet between the office offers the poor environment for projector -> technician(Mike) advised, real space at the Lethaby will have better light. 
  3. the wire between the panels slightly disrupting the beauty.


Degree show Plans

1. SYMBOL – Causality – Moving Image

ver 1.

ver 2.

ver 3.

ver 4. test

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2. INDEX – rules & laws – Frame

Conceived for Fabergé’s Easter storefront display, the 360-degree mapped 3D installation is based on the company’s pendent designs – which are 1/100th of the size of the 1.5m model – and incorporates an interactive touchscreen element to showcase the detail of the jewellery.

3. ICON – resemblance – Bubble

Oil Spill – OEFNER

Bubble Colour


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4. Physics


The physic of the bubble collapsing 
Thin-film interference – Wikipedia
3D Alcubierre warp bubble collapse – YouTube
Shocking Bubbles – YouTube
Mach 3 Bubble Shockwaves – YouTube
대한민국 1등 과학브랜드, 동아사이언스
Surface Evolver Examples

5. Plateau’s laws


Material motion – Motion – Material Design

Bruce Nauman | 4Columns

Tutorial Video on 3D

Tip 114 – How to create soap bubbles in Cinema 4D Release 18 – YouTube
How to make a cool bubble in Cinema 4D | Tutorial – YouTube
CGI 3D Tutorials : How to Create Soap Bubbles in Cinema 4D – YouTube
Shock-Induced Bubble Implosion (Six Bubbles) – YouTube
Dytran – Bubble Collapse Simulation – YouTube

Experimental Video Art and frame / Theories

Screen-based sculpture and experimental artworks in the late 1960~1970s in which the cinematic process and the screen itself emerge as an object of investigation.

Viewing regimes are literally and figuratively put on display in these environments.

emotion -> sound -> sound -> visual

structure is not making but shifting.

Text is form of the sound
Image is form of the thing

– information / James Gleick

Schutz “cognitive style”

  1. a specific tension of consciousness
  2. epoché: suspension of doubt;
  3. working: projected & characterised by movement
  4. a specific form of experiencing ones’ self
  5. a specific form of sociality
  6. a specific form of time–perspection

Space & time are merely extremes of the contraction and dilation of a signal durée, or duration.

  1. frame ( matter movement) mobile cut
  2. shot (editing with montage shots )


  • What does screen frame create / means?
  • What we experience within the frame?


  1. perception-image
  2. action-image
  3. affection-image
  4. impulse-image
  5. reflection-image
  6. relation-image


Frame’s muscle

Perception is a tool for selection.
Light go spread into all direction

Film essential 

  • consciousness of movement
  • visual rhythms


is light is the primary medium?
–>  projector is a medium?

  1. Intensity of light
  2. movement within a given space
  3. internal balance of time


Michael snow “shaping the main ingredient.”
Peter Kubelka “quick projection of light impulses.”

Whithin the hemispherical screen, the spectator himself is the frame of reference. The rectangular screenprovides an objective frame of reference both for “representational” and for “abstract” picture.

Shaw, J. and Weibel, P. (2003). Future Cinema: The cinematic imaginary after film. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

“Reality seen on the screen is the idea in the mind of the film-maker. Organ of lumination ends adn where it has its beginning.”


To sing images, like a luminous fish does in the dark depths of the ocean, not with a reflected but with one’s own light.

Shaw, J. and Weibel, P. (2003). Future Cinema: The cinematic imaginary after film. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.


Death of books “gallery-based, projected-image art.”

Video art -> film, cinema based or art based until 1960
1. Experimental artist’s film
2. gallery-based projected-image

1970 in the USA, ‘structural film overlapped with experimental filmmaker; Michael Snow, Hollis Frampton. Artist-filmmaker; Richard Serra, Robert Morris, Yvonne Rainer.

Structural film

P. Adams Sitney

Four feature

  1. flicker
  2. fixed-frame filming, unmoving or largely unmoving camera
  3. loop printing ( immediate repetition of shots )
  4. Re-photography from the screen

ex) Andy Warhol(1962-68)

Sitney’s definition combined a technique-based, formulation of a new aesthetic with the potential for a critique-based, avantgardist political programme for the film.

The UK -> Structural-materialist

#Peter Gidal ‘theory and definition of structural/materialist film’, studio ?International 190:978(Nov/Dec 1975). pp189-96


Peter Gidal.(ed.) Structural Film Anthology (London: BFI publishing, 1976)

  1. rejection of narrative
  2. illusion
  3. representation

New theory ‘screen/space’

  • modernism
  • Festival

Michael Snow: engage with play between the physical and an illusionist space of projection

Importance of surrealism

Gallery and space

The nuanced view of the museum as a space in flux. Constantly inflected by the other space to which it is related by the works on show within it, and by new viewing technologies and the unfamiliar habits of viewing which they bring.

The light Reflection = touching

directed touching.

Provisionality of vision. our presumed transparency of vision, in fact, the product of complex historical conditions and cultural formation


Projected image

  1. The movement itself mimic the object.

It likes Deleuze mentioned in “becoming” sound mimicked bird singing and becoming the bird. Screen mimicking human’s physical movement and becoming human.

2. Mona Hatoum’s testimony

This work mimic the shape of the bodily organ shown in the circular form of the projected image. Suggests a chain of associations. How much moving image can break down the vision, through this journey, mimicking the big picture of the motion movement.

3. wink mimicking

4. technological diversity and concentrated material specificity. Attention to space & apparatus

5. Bill Viola

Vision of reality in which the form his art takes creates a ground for capturing the forces of nature.

How, through the optics of a moving-image recording technology, could he create a “vision of reality” absent of form.

I see that media techonologies not at odds with out inner selves, but in fact a reflection of it.

Bill Viola, “Presence & Absence: Vision and the Invisible in the Media age.” 2007

Accidents Invitation.


6. Bruce Nauman

Nayman’s concrete actions begged questions about the structure that functions beneath language, in advance of conscious thought. He sought to connect this philosophic inquiry to the physical world of direct experience.

“Creates situations and objects that demand extended concentration from the viewer.





Laptop Frame and Screen

Compare with cinema screen environment, the laptop doesn’t require and insist a dark and limited space. It is not aiming the space as “projected-image art” in the gallery.

You already had said what you would said

The thing is existed itself. On the other hand, when we perceive it, the thing itself is pictorial.

Perception is a means whereby libing images receive movements, and perception is always linked to action, for which reason all perception is sensori-motor, and instrument for translating an external movement via the senses into an ensuing motor action.

Henri Bergson

However, user and subject view are not separable, frame transforms the character’s view… A correlation between persepective –image and a camera–consicouness “subject” that transforms it.

Henri Bergson

Out of the three-dimensional relationship, and forward to four-dimensional relationship finally space can be a solid body.



What I should do consider as a designer


  • Visual relationship
  • Aware the technological
  • improvise new combination
  • coordinates material
  • spectator’s predilection

Experiment –> Perceive –> Analyse –> Organise –> Symbolise –> Synthesize


Analyse (Kant)

  1. Comparing
  2. examine
  3. relating
  4. distinguishing
  5. abstracting
  6. deducing
  7. demonstrating

a) The given
b) The formal (space, colour, composition, value)
c) psychological (visual, perception) optical illusion.

Designer’s art

  • graphic design is essentially about the visual relationship, providing meaning to a means of unrelated needs, ideas, words, and pictures.
  • Ideals ought to aim at the transformation of reality – William James
  • Beautiful & useful
  • Repetition  – emotional force generated by repetition
  • without the basic rules or disciplines, however, there is no motivation

New Media


Language of Tomorrow: Lev Manovich at TEDxReset 2010 – YouTube

71p New representational style of semi-abstraction which, along with photography, became the “international style” of modern visual culture, required the viewer to reconstruct the represented objects from the bare minimum — a contour, few patches of colour, shadows cast by the objects not represented directly.

International style and organical culture have a different direction. To describe organic culture, Manovich uses a notion of an idea from metaphor as a remix. First, based on Post Modernism’s style and remix with traditional sensibility as a second. Finally, global remix creates new layers of perspective.

The Man with the Movie Camera(1929) – YouTube
Man with a Movie Camera. (1929). Directed by D. Vertov. Kharkov, Ukraine: VUFKU.

Computer became a space or a tool to bring the user into the data, connect and interact each other. Space became a tool is not a new phenomenon. But compare with previous way, which the idea and actual object coexisted in same space, in new space, idea or concept became a space, and the interface or numeric language space remixed with traditional concept provide a new tool. Lev Manovich once again brings the camera perspective, explain as cinema perception.

p88 I will begin with probably the most important case of cinema’s influence on cultural interfaces — the mobile camera.

As computer culture is gradually spatializing all representations and experiences, they become subjected to the camera’s particular grammar of data access. Zoom, tilt, pan and track: we now use these operations to interact with data spaces, models, objects and bodies.

New vision Movement [Neues Sehen – Wikipedia]

Editing a and montage make fabrication and fantasy. If documentary limited editing and instantaneity, time montage – put different reality into linear perspective – and editing the image within the frame – shot – not only for make to smooth fake space, also present active distance by the mark of the editing.

p IX “Editing, or montage, is the key twentieth technology for creating fake realities. Theoreticians of cinema have distinguished between many kinds of montage but, for the purposes of sketching the archeology of the technologies of simulation leading to digital compositing,

Each layer can maintain each identity, rather remixed into one space. However, once image contact with the audience, image’s identity disassembled and that instantaneous construct cinema perspective. Compare with the paper frame, which was a group of physical spaces, now moved on to the electronic frame, insisted equal position and frame equality.

p 228 Even more relevant is the tradition of “paper architecture” — the designs which were not intended to be built and whose authors therefore felt unencumbered by the limitations of materials, gravity and budgets. Another highly relevant tradition is film architecture. As discussed in the “Theory of Cultural Interfaces” section, the standard interface to computer space is the virtual camera modeled after a film camera, rather than a simulation of unaided human sight. After all, film architecture is The architecture designed for navigation and exploration by a film camera.

However, audiences’ sight is mediated by the other type of the layer. Each frame formed by smaller frames’ particles, which is similar to the square frame. Each frame starts from sub-frame and became the big frame. Eventually forming one big frame.

p89 Of course, the camera is now controlled by the user and in fact is identified with his/her own sight. Yet, it is crucial that in VR one is seeing the virtual world through a rectangular frame, and that this frame always presents only a part of a larger whole. This frame creates a distinct subjective experience which is much more close to cinematic perception than to unmediated sight.

p51 The objects themselves can be combined into even larger objects — again, without losing their independence. For example, a multimedia “movie” authored in popular Macromedia Director software may consist from hundreds of still images, QuickTime movies, and sounds which are all stored separately and are loaded at run time. Because all elements are stored independently, they can be modified at any time without having to change Director movie itself.

Then, how these fractals formulated? The man with the Movie Camera shows three different spaces into a connection. First space, describe cameraman himself.  Second, the present audience who is watching finished cinema. Finally, documenting one day’s of Moscow, Kiev, and Riga’s narrative and is arranged according to a progression of one day: waking up — work — leisure activities. If this third level is a text, the other two can be thought of as its meta-texts.

p210 Therefore, in contrast to standard film editing which consists in selection and ordering of previously shot material according to a pre-existent script, here the process of relating shots to each other, ordering and reordering them in order to discover the hidden order of the world constitutes the film’s method. Man with a Movie Camera traverses its database in a particular order to construct an argument. Records drawn from a database and arranged in a particular order become a picture of modern life — but simultaneously an argument about this life, an interpretation of what these images, which we encounter every day, every second, actually mean.

Vertov’s cinema is claiming that camera’s eye – editing or new technology can use to decoding the cipher of the world vision. Through Vertov, objective photograhy descriptive image shifted to dynamic and subjective narration. Is this what now designers should aim for?


As past cinema theorist studied 10 years of the cinema language, the designer should pursuit new-media or new design language.

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