202004032042 โ€” Why Gesture

Reference: Church, R. Breckinridge, Martha W. Alibali, and Spencer D. Kelly, eds., Why Gesture?: How the Hands Function in Speaking, Thinking and Communicating, Gesture Studies (Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017), vii https://doi.org/10.1075/gs.7

Gesture Study

3

  • ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜ ์Šคํ„ฐ๋””๋Š” 20์„ธ๊ธฐ์ฏค๋ถ€ํ„ฐ ๊ณ ์„ฑ์žฅ (bourgeoning) ํŠนํžˆ๋‚˜ ๋ง์„ ํ• ๋•Œ์˜ ์—ญํ• ๋กœ์„œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋˜์—ˆ๋‹ค.
  • โ€œwindow on the mind.โ€ ::Hearing Gesture, Susan Goldin-Meadow (2007):: frequently in a way that reflects an imagistic version of what is being spoken.

4

  • ์•„๋ฆฌ์Šคํ†  ํ…”๋ ˆ์Šค๋Š” ํ–‰์œ„๋ฅผ ์ผ์œผํ‚ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ๊ณผ (what causes a โ€” efficient cause), ํ–‰์œ„๋ฅผ ํ•˜๋Š” ์ด์œ  (what behaviour for โ€” final cause)๋กœ ๋‚˜๋ˆ„์—ˆ๋‹ค.
  • ์‚ฐ์ฑ…์„ ํ•œ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ• ๋•Œ, working metabolic ๊ณผ ๊ทผ์œก ์‹œ์Šคํ…œ์ด efficient cause, ๊ฑด๊ฐ•์ด final cause์ด๋‹ค.
  • ์ด ๊ธ€์—์„  what gesture is for๊ฐ€ ๋ ๊ฒƒ์ด๋‹ค.

397

  • ์ด ์ฑ…์—์„œ ์ฒซ ํ…Œ๋งˆ๋Š” ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•ด์„œ๋Š” ์ƒ๋ฌผํ•™์ , ์ •์‹ ํ•™์  ๊ทธ๋ฆฌ๊ณ  ์‚ฌํšŒ์ ์œผ๋กœ ํ•ด์„ํ•ด ๋ณธ๋‹ค.
  • ๋‘๋ฒˆ์งธ ํ…Œ๋งˆ๋กœ๋Š” ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์˜ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์„ ๋ชจ๋“  ์‹œ๊ฐ„๋Œ€์˜ ํ”„๋ ˆ์ž„์œผ๋กœ ํ•ด์„ํ•ด๋ณธ๋‹ค. โ€“ moment-to-moment, ontogenetic, and evolutionary
  • ์„ธ๋ฒˆ์งธ ํ…Œ๋งˆ๋Š” the methodology for studying gesture is necessarily varied.

398

  • Finding that gesture occurs across different contexts and under different task requirements tells us that its functions are multi-faceted and flexible.
  • ๋„ค๋ฒˆ์งธ ํ…Œ๋งˆ๋Š”, ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์˜ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ์€ producer๋ฅผ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋งŒ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š๊ณ , ๋ณด๋Š” ์‚ฌ๋žŒ์„ ์œ„ํ•ด์„œ๋„ ์ž‘๋™ํ•œ๋‹ค. The gestyoure supports speech to enhance internal activities of the speaker, such as thinking and language production, while simultaneously supporting speech to enhance communication to listeners, influencing the listenerโ€™s thinking and language comprehension.

398-401 (Neurological evidence Analysis)

401- (Psychological evidence Analysis)

  • Gesture appears to be linked with language to support the way spatial information in speech ::(Alibali et al., Chapter 2; Ozyurek, Chapter 3)::
  • As another example, gesture appears to reflect action in a simulated form in problem-solving contexts (Hostetter & Boncoddo, Chapter 7; Nathan, Chapter 8)
  • ํŠนํžˆ๋‚˜ ์ฑ•ํ„ฐ5 ์—์„œ McNeill and Lopez-Oziebloโ€™s
    • Growth Point Theory (GPT):
    • (1) gesture and speech are synchronized;
    • (2) gestureโ€™s format, which is gestalt, 3D, and imagistic, is distinctly different from speechโ€™s format, which is analytic, 2D, and linear;
    • and (3) because these two formats are different, the combination of gesture and speech modalities reflects a more complete version of an idea than either modality alone.

402-404

  • De Ruiter์˜ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜๊ฐ€ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ผ์นœ๋‹ค๊ณ  ํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๊ฐ€ ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜์˜ supplement information์œผ๋กœ (that is redundant with speech)๋ผ๊ณ  ๋งํ•ด์ง€์ง€๋งŒ ์ด ์ฑ…์—์„œ์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•ด์„œ ์‚ฌ์‹ค ์„œ๋กœ๊ฐ€ ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ฐ›์œผ๋ฉฐ,
  • GPT ๋ฅผ ํ†ตํ•œ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋Š” gestyoure content mirrors speech content, because gestureโ€™s format is 3-D and nonlinear, it is never fully redundant with speech.
  • Gesture provides visuo-spatial information that reflects 3-di- mensional, dynamic, as well as perceptual features (Hostetter et al., Chapter 7).
  • ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” embodied cognition์™€ ์—ฐ๊ฒฐ๋˜์–ด์žˆ๋‹ค.
    • our understanding of concepts may be grounded in the way we physically interact with the world, which is reflected in the way we gesture about the world (Cook & Fenn, Chapter 6; Hostetter et al., Chapter 7; Nathan, Chapter 8; Novack & Goldin- Meadow, Chapter 17; Hostetter & Alibali, 2008; Alibali & Nathan, 2007; McNeill, 2005; Nรบรฑez & Lakoff, 2005)
  • ์ฑ•ํ„ฐ 17์—์„œ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” ํŠน์ดํ•œ ์œ ๋‹ˆํฌํ•œ ํผ์˜ ์•ก์…˜์ด๋‹ค.
    • ์ฆ‰ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ์ง์ ‘์ ์œผ๋กœ ์„ธ์ƒ์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ผ์น˜๋Š”๊ฐ€์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์ •๋ณด๋ฅผ ๋‹ด์€ ์ง์ ‘์ ์œผ๋กœ ์„ธ์ƒ์— ์˜ํ–ฅ์„ ๋ผ์น˜์ง€ ์•Š๋Š” ์•ก์…˜์ด๋‹ค. it represents information about a direct effect on the world without having a direct affect on the world (e.g., twisting a jar lid results in an open jar in a way that producing a twisting gesture does not; see also Goldin-Meadow, 2015, and Novack & Goldin-Meadow, 2016, for discussion).
      • This in betweenplace may serve a particularly important purpose for cognition.
    • However, gesturing about acting on objectsis more likely to lead to generalization and retention than actually acting on objects(see Novack & Goldin-Meadow, Chapter 17 and also Novack, Congdon, Hemani-Lopez & Goldin-Meadow, 2014; and Congdon, Novack, Brooks, Hemani-Lopez, Oโ€™Keefe & Goldin-Meadow, under review; Wakefield, Hall, James & Goldin-Meadow, 2017).

404-405 Social Evidence (Chapter11-16)

405- (Gesture Functions in all time frames)

Moment-to-moment

Developmental time frame

Evolutionary time frame

์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜ ๋ฉ”์นด๋‹ˆ์ฆ˜

6

  • A number of evolutionary perspectives suggest that gesture evolved either as a precursor to spoken language (Bates & Dick, 2002; Corballis, 2002; Rizzolatti & Arbib, 1998; Tomasello, 2008) or simultaneously along with it (McNeill, 2012).
  • In addition, there are powerful mechanisms of gesture on the much shorter timeframe of moment-to-moment processing, which spans from seconds to minutes. For example, when people are faced with challenging spatial and motoric tasks, they produce more representational gestures when they speak, than when they face simpler tasks (Alibali, Yeo, Hostetter & Kita, Chapter 2).

์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์˜ ๊ธฐ๋Šฅ

7

  • Tinbergen (1963) points out, a behaviour can be functional without being the direct product of some specific evolutionary mechanism.
    • human hands evolved to interact with real objects in the environment, but they were co-opted over time to also serve the communicative function of gesturing about imaginary objects not present in the here and now.
  • The gestures may enhance or disrupt common ground (Nathan, Alibali, & Church, Chapter 13), clarify or confuse an important concept (Singer, Chapter 14)

์ฑ•ํ„ฐ 2 Representational gesture help speakers package information for speaking p. 15-

15

  • What role do gestures play in speaking? Current theories of gesture production have three primary foci:
    1. the role of gestures in communicating information,
    2. the role of gestures in producing speech, and
    3. the cognitive processes that give rise to gestures.
  • These distinct perspectives emphasise different aspects of the complex behaviour that we recognize as gesture.

16

  • We focus in particular on representational gestures, which are movements that represent semantic information via form (handshape), trajectory, or location.
  • ์ด๋Ÿฌํ•œ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” beat ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์™€ ๋‹ค๋ฅด๋‹ค. which are motorically simple gestures that manifest aspects of the structure and prosody of speech but do not convey semantic content (McNeill, 1992), and ๋˜ํ•œ ์ธํ„ฐ๋ ‰ํ‹ฐ๋ธŒ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์™€๋„ ๋‹ค๋ฅด๋‹ค, from interactive gestures, which are used to regulate turn-taking and other aspects of interaction among participants in a communicative situation (Bavelas, Chovil, Lawrie, & Wade, 1992).
  • ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜์™€ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๊ธฐํ˜ธ์  ํŠน์„ฑ์„ ๊ฐ€์ง„๋‹ค
    • Gesture: Distinct meanings converge into a single, synthetic gesture.
    • In contrast, speech is analytic and combinatorial, in the sense that the meaning of the whole depends on the meanings of the individual elements.
  • ๊ธ€๋กœ๋ฒŒ๊ณผ ํ†ตํ•ฉ์ ์ธ ํŠน์ง•์œผ๋กœ, gestures are adept at expressing spatial, motoric, and relational information (Alibali, 2005)
  • ์ด ๊ธ€์€ Information Packaging Hypothesis Kita(2000)์— ์˜ํ•ด ๊ฐœ๋ฐœ๋œ ๋ฉ”๋˜๋Œ๋กœ์ง€๋ฅผ ์ด์šฉํ•ด ๋ถ„์„ํ•ด๋ณธ๋‹ค.

Information Packaging Hypothesis๋ž€?

- *Information Packaging Hypothesis* โ€œhelps speakers organize rich spatio-motoric information into packages suitable for speakingโ€ (Kita, 2000, p. 163) 
- ํ‚คํƒ€์— ๋”ฐ๋ฅด๋ฉด ๊ณต๊ฐ„-๋™์ (spatio-motoric) ์ƒ๊ฐ์€ โ€œalternative informational organization that is not readily accessible to analytic thinkingโ€ (p. 163) 

17

  • ํ‚คํƒ€์˜์™€ ๋ชฐ(2012)์˜ ์˜๊ฒฌ์— ๊ฒฝ์šฐ
    • In later work, Kita and ร–zyรผrek (2003) further specified this process in their Interface Model, which holds that gesture production and speech production processes are linked bidirectionally. ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜์™€ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜ ์‚ฌ์ด์—” ์ต์Šค์ฒด์ธ์ง€๊ฐ€ ์ผ์–ด๋‚จ.
    • Through this process, gesture and speech converge in content; more specifically, gestures encode information equivalent to the infomation speech encodes within a processing unit for utterance formation (roughly a clause for adult speakers) (Mol & Kita, 2012).
  • ์ด ์ƒ๊ฐ์€ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๋‘๊ฐœ์˜ ์ปจํ…œ ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜ ์† ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์— ๋Œ€ํ•œ ์˜๊ฒฌ๊ณผ ๋ฐ˜๋Œ€๋œ๋‹ค.
    1. First, the Lexical Retrieval(ํšŒ๋ณต) Hypothesis (Krauss, Chen, & Gottesman, 2000): – Briefly, gestures activate spatial-dynamic features of concepts, which in turn feed activation to lexical items, facilitating speakersโ€™ retrieval of those lexical items.
    2. Second, the Image Activation Hypothesis(de Ruiter, 1998; Wesp, Hesse, Keutmann, & Wheaton, 2001). gestures serve to maintain activation on mental images while they are encoded in speech.

20

- IPH์—์„œ ํ‚คํƒ€๊ฐ€ ํ•œ ์‹คํ—˜.
    - [image:5DDDBD6B-5494-438C-A9C3-0C293094973A-1343-0001218ACC14AD90/Screenshot 2020-04-03 at 22.32.02.png]
- As predicted from the IPH, participants produced more representational gestures (but not more beat gestures) in the hard condition than in the easy condition, while using comparable content in speech. 
- ๊ฒฐ๊ณผ์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋” ์–ด๋ ค์šด ๊ทธ๋ฆผ์„ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•ด์•ผํ•  ๋•Œ ๋” ๋งŽ์€ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉํ•จ

์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์˜ ์ œํ•œ

22

- ์•„์ด๋“ค์˜ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ์ œํ•œ ์‹œํ‚จ๋’ค ์„ค๋ช…์„ ์‹œ์ผฐ์„๋•Œ, 
    - ๋น„๊ต๋ฌธ์ด๋ผ๋˜๊ฐ€  (about information that was not perceptually present, such as information about the initial equality of the object), 
    - ์•„๋‹ˆ๋ฉด ๋ณ€ํ™” transformation that the experimenter had previously performed.
    - ๋˜๋Š” hypothetical states or transformation (e.g., โ€œif you put these two together, then this would be longer that thisโ€)
- ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ํ—ˆ์šฉํ–ˆ์„ ๊ฒฝ์šฐ
    - tended to focus on information that was perceptually present (e.g., โ€œthis oneโ€™s tallerโ€) 
    - often combination with deictic information with perceptual gesture information.
        - (i.e., a gesture toward one of the task objects that also depicted or highlighted a perceptual feature of the object, such as a flat palm held at the top edge of one of the glasses, to depict the height of the glass) 
- **Thus, prohibiting gestures reduced childrenโ€™s focus on perceptually available spatio-motoric information in their explanations.** 

24

- participants who were allowed to gesture expressed a greater percentage of key events with semantically rich verbs than did speakers who could not gesture. This finding is compatible with the view that speakers package information differently when they produce gesture and when they do not. 
- In addition, speakers who could not gesture were more likely to begin units with a filler (i.e., โ€œum,โ€ โ€œuh,โ€ โ€œand,โ€ or โ€œthenโ€) than were speakers who were al- lowed to gesture. 

30

- (๋งํ•˜๊ธฐ ์ „ ์ง‘์ค‘์šฉ์œผ๋กœ) Alibali et al. (2014) argued that the boyโ€™s gesture served to focus his attention on the width of the dish, and highlighted information about width for verbalization. 
- (ํ•  ๋ง์ด ์ •ํ•ด์ง„ ์ƒํƒœ์—์„œ ์–ด๋–ป๊ฒŒ ๋งํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ธ์ง€ ํ‘œํ˜„ํ•  ๊ฒƒ์ธ์ง€ possible option๋ฅผ exploreํ•˜๋Š” ์šฉ์œผ๋กœ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ์‚ฌ์šฉ) In other cases, speakersโ€™ choices about what information to express are relatively constrained or specified in advance. In such cases, speakers may use gesture to explore possible options for how to express that information. 

์ฑ•ํ„ฐ 7 (155-)

155

- As movements of the body, gestures are actions, albeit representational ones that do not actually manipulate the physical environment.  
- gestures provide perceptual experiences 
- Gesture as Simulated Action (GSA) ํ”„๋ ˆ์ž„์›Œํฌ๋Š” 
    - which claims that gestures emerge from **perceptual representations** and **links with action** that are formed in the minds of speakers. We then consider how gesturesโ€™ relationship to perceptual-motor representations might play a functional role in strengthening those representations in the minds of speakers. 

156

- Researchers who argue for the **embodiment of cognition** claim 
    - (1) that psychological processes are grounded in the sensorimotor(๊ฐ๊ฐ์šด๋™) system 
    - and (2) that **action is an integral part of perception** (see Glenberg, Witt, & Metcalfe, 2013 for a review). 
    - Thus, perceptual judgments are not the result of abstract calculations, but involve activation of our own previous, current, and expected sensorimotor experiences.  (๊ฐ„๋‹จํ•œ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ ๊ฐ๊ฐ์—๋„ ์–ผ๋งˆ๋‚˜ ๊ทธ ๊ฑฐ๋ฆฌ์— ๋„๋‹ฌํ•˜๊ธฐ๊นŒ์ง€ ์—๋„ˆ์ง€๊ฐ€ ํ•„์š”ํ•œ๊ฐ€์— ๋”ฐ๋ผ์„œ ๋” ๋ฉ€๋ฆฌ ๋Š๊ปด์ง€๋ฉฐ, ๋ˆ„๊ฐ€ ์ด์„ ๋“ค๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š”๊ฐ€ ์•„๋‹Œ๊ฐ€๋Š” ์šฐ๋ฆฌ ์Šค์Šค๋กœ๊ฐ€ ์ด์„ ๋“ค๊ณ  ์žˆ๋Š๋ƒ ์•„๋‹Œ๊ฐ€๋กœ ํŒ๋‹จ๋œ๋‹ค)

157 (GSA์˜ ์—ฐ๊ตฌ๋“ค)

- **The GSA framework** follows the claims of embodied cognition more **generally to assert that when speakers talk about perceptual and motor experiences**, they activate perceptual-motor representations of those experiences, and **these representations reactivate the same neural areas that were involved in actually having or observing those experiences**. ์ง€๊ฐ์  ์šด๋™์  ๊ฒฝํ—˜์˜ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ํ• ๋•Œ ์‹ค์ œ๋กœ ๋‘๋‡Œ์˜ ๊ทธ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์„ ์•กํ‹ฐ๋ฒ ์ดํŠธ์‹œํ‚จ๋‹ค.

158

- For example, speakers gesture more when they are describing spatial or motoric information than when they are describing abstract information (Alibali, 2005). 

159

- Hostetter (2014) found that speakers gestured at high rates both when describing highly motoric objects (e.g., tools) and when speaking to a listener who could see their gestures. 
- Although the framework is termed Gesture as Simulated *Action*, this should not be taken to imply that the framework excludes gestures that occur with per- ceptual representations (such as thinking about the size or shape of an object). 

160

- judgments of size and distance of objects are affected by our own past and anticipated experiences with those objects (e.g., Witt & Proffitt, 2005). 
- Moreover, increasing evidence suggests that **viewing an object with a particular shape activates a motor plan for how to grasp or use the object (Bub, Masson, & Cree, 2008)** as well as a motor plan for **how to trace the shape of the object** (Bach, Griffiths, Weigelt, & Tipper, 2010). 
- It is also not unusual for speakers to gesture as **they describe something that they have only read about** and have not directly experienced. 
    - embodied cognition is that psychological processes are grounded in the sensorimotor system (e.g., Glenberg et al., 2013); such psychological processes include reading. 

168

- This means that gestures can be thought of as highlighting perceptual-motor representations in two ways. 
    1. Gesturesโ€™ perceptual-motor representationsโ€™ production signals that a particular kind of representation is formed in the speakersโ€™ mind, mainly one that reactivates the neural experience of the perceptual and motor event the speaker is describing.
    2. The motor plan involved in gesture can strengthen the speakersโ€™ representation, which can affect how easy it is for the speaker to attend to, remember, or describe gestured elements of that representation 

์ฑ•ํ„ฐ 17(381-

381

- When we say here that **gestures are representational actions**, we mean that they are meaningful substitutions and analogical stand-ins for ideas, objects, actions, relations, etc. 
- ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œ **representational** ์˜ ์‚ฌ์šฉ์€ representational gesture (a category of gestures that look like the ideas and items to which they refer (i.e., iconic and metaphoric gestures) ์™€ ํ˜ผ๋™๋˜๋ฉด ์•ˆ๋œ๋‹ค. โžก๏ธŽ **apply to all types of nonconventional gestures**, including representational gestures (iconics, metaphorics), deictic gestures (points), and even beat gestures (rhythmic movements closely coordinated with speech). 

382

- Gesture is *action*in that it involves movements of the body. 
- ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ๋ฐฉ์‹์˜ ์•ก์…˜์ด๋‹ค.
- one that *represents* the world rather than directly impacting the world.

Properties of a Movement to be Identified as a Gesture

382-3 โ€” Processing movement as gesture

- ์žฌํ˜„์ ์ธ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋Š” ๋น„์žฌํ˜„์ ์ธ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์™€์˜ ๊ตฌ๋ณ„์ด ํ•„์š”ํ•˜๋‹ค. 
- ์ด ๋ถ€๋ถ„์€ ์™œ ์‚ฌ๋žŒ๋“ค์ด ์›€์ง์ž„์„ ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋กœ ๋ณด๊ฒŒ ๋งŒ๋“œ๋Š”๊ฐ€๋ฅผ ์„ค๋ช…ํ•œ๋‹ค.
- ์ฒซ๋ฒˆ์งธ ์กฐ๊ฑด์œผ๋กœ๋Š” **๋นˆ ์†**์ด๋‹ค โžก๏ธŽ ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋ชจ๋“  ๋นˆ ์†(์ถค์ด๋‚˜ ์šด๋™)์ด ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜๋กœ ์ธ์‹๋˜์ง„ ์•Š๋Š”๋‹ค. โžก๏ธŽ However, unlike dance or exercise, the movement itself is *not* the goal of a gesture. 

384 โ€” The unique functions of gesture in communication, problem solving, and learning

- ์ œ์Šค์ฒ˜์™€ ๋‹ค๋ฅธ ์›€์ง์ž„์€ ์ธ์‹์ ์œผ๋กœ ๋ถ„๋ฆฌ๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” benefits๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋‹ค.

Journey to the Seaside and honest back story of my work

What is the nature of making art? If it is not simply about fashioning forms and colours, then it has to do with the production of meaning…If you begin there you realize that potentially everything is material for art, because at some point it has to have an aspect of concretion and must be framed in relation to people’s lives.

Stuart Morgan, and Joseph Kosuth, โ€˜Art as Idea as Idea: An Interview with Joseph Kosuthโ€™, Frieze, 6 May 1994 <https://frieze.com/article/art-idea-idea> [accessed 22 February 2020]

Yes, I love seaside. From my background, there should always be a reason why that content. but since I had a conversation with my loving friend,

What truly important is seeking what you really want. What feeling you want to present? How do you feel recently? What is your thinking about this bittersweet life? So, I decided to go to seaside again and make a video with it. I want to put that place name as secret because that would be only my place and intimate place of mine, where someday I would like to bring someone to show how I felt that times.

Yes… There was so many trouble
I finally found my place
And I started shooting

Honestly, I never used this Canon XA10(it was only one remained at uni’s resources storeโ€ฆ,) I had no idea what kind of images I can get from it. I was afraid because it was a challenge with the unknown. The place where Iโ€™d planned to go, because I already been there, I knew what viewpoint I could get. But that new place was totally unknown, and I should believe my instinct (well thatโ€™s life babe.) It doesn’t matter how the imageโ€™s quality is high or best colour or not, it is still my image. I had a rough idea that I wanted to make, but real work starts when you really move your hands and begin to do something.

Honest Story

I love to make. It is an exciting experience that I’m actualise something that only existed in my imagination. Although I had a plan, it doesn’t mean that I know why I am doing right now, it can remain a lot of questions. Why sea wave? Why that composition? Why am I making this? Why is tactile or touching so important? After I finished editing, I tried to get the answer to this work; then I realised that I should go back to personal memory.

I remember that hand. No, I am thinking that hand right now. That moment, I didn’t see that hand, but by sense, I could see how it stroked my heart and my hand. I didn’t care in front of the street; how I worked, how was the sky, I just wanted to feel that hand. And I still can see it as if it is happening in front of me. As a third person, I can see in front of me. It is surprising how that small part of the body could create that much sensation. Each of my fingers, fingertips, between the fingers, touched another fingers, fingertips, between the fingers. I don’t remember surrounding, just fingers and warmth of the hand in the dark black hole. It hurt because there was an ending, I knew even that time, it will be end soon. But, no I am not sad because it finished, that long and the short moment has already distilled within my memory, became a violent wave, continuously crush my head and heart. The face faded away from my eyes, that skin scent evaporated from my nose, that warmth cooled in my heart, but that image of touch remained everywhere. It has extracted into the sense of eyes, as a looping memory, possess it as mine and possessed by it.

I never expressed how I felt at that time. Verbal communication is always hard to deliver. The simple words cannot show everything I want to say. I do not know even there was something between hand; I never asked about that moment. Perhaps I was afraid that if there was only one hand. Perhaps I was afraid as soon as I verbalised that memory it would vanish from the memory as if it was just my imagination, never happened in my life.

So, I made this video. I visualised that hand. Metaphorical wave crushes everywhere and touches your eyes from a distance. It never ends, or it ever moves. In the video, visual and sonic senses composed into the one image, but tactile. Is that intentional? Or just I couldn’t deliver the tactility of it?

It’s gone now. Remained only perhaps, maybe or never. But looping.

Seeable Relationship. Sayable connection. #03

This post is not organised writing or essay, but the fragmented thought.

Previous

Were we to attempt to see the intervals between things as themselves things, the appearance of the world would be just as noticeably changed

Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, and Donald A. Landes, Phenomenology of Perception (Abingdon, Oxonโ€ฏ; New York: Routledge, 2012), p. 16

If we hold ourselves to phenomena, then the unity of the thing in perception is not constructed through association, but rather, being the condition of association, this unity precedes the cross-checkings that verify and determine it, this unity precedes itself. If I am walking on a beach toward a boat that has run aground, and if the funnel or the mast merges with the forest that borders the dune, then there will be a moment in which these details suddenly reunite with the boat and become welded to it. As I approached, I did not perceive the resemblances or the proximities that were, in the end, about to reunite with the superstructure of the ship in an unbroken picture. I merely felt that the appearance of the object was about to change, that something was imminent in this tension, as the storm is imminent in the clouds.The spectacle was suddenly reorganised, satisfying my vague expectation. Afterward I recognised, as justifications for the change, the resemblance and the contiguity of what I call โ€œstimuli,โ€ that is, the most determinate phenomena obtained from up close and with which I compose the โ€œtrueโ€ world.

Ibid, pp. 17-18

The unity of the object is established upon the presentiment of an imminent order that will, suddenly, respond to questions that are merely latent in the landscape. It will resolve a problem only posed in the form of a vague uneasiness;

Ibid, p. 18

Is the moment changing? The duration of changing? There is an interesting example by Merleau-Ponty, which is used as the rabbit and the hunter image in English and french version, but different example in Korean translation. When one woman saw her hotel uniform lover, he is a handsome and beautiful lover. But when she saw him by accident around the hotel, he is just a uniformed hotel carrier. (Each book in French and English pages are below.) I am assuming this example differences because the translator used another source such as the Japanese or German version. However, it is fascinating differences how two examples can explain same thing in different way about the shifting of the unity from one to another without interrupting two unity world. Further, for me, it should be approached differently as a lover and as an image. Well, let’s find out how I can use this example

Merleau-Ponty claims that unity of the thing in perception is not constructed through association, but rather, being the condition of association, which can deliver the immediate answer.

Phenomenology of Perception

The unity of the object is established upon the presentiment of an imminent order that will, suddenly, respond to questions that are merely latent in the landscape. It will resolve a problem only posed in the form of a vague uneasiness; it organises elements that until then did not belong to the same universe and which, for that reason, as Kant said insightfully, could not have been associated.

๋Œ€์ƒ์˜ ํ†ต์ผ์„ฑ์€ ์˜ˆ์˜ ๊ทธ ๊ด‘๊ฒฝ์— ์ž ์žฌ๋˜์–ด ์žˆ์„ ๋ฟ์ธ ๋ฌธ์ œ์— ๋Œ€ํ•˜์—ฌ ๋‹จ์ˆจ์— ๋‹ต์„ ์ œ๊ณตํ•˜๋ ค๋Š” ์ž„๋ฐ•ํ•œ ์งˆ์„œ์˜ ์˜ˆ๊ฐ์— ๊ธฐ์ดˆํ•ด ์žˆ๊ณ , ๋ชจํ˜ธํ•œ ๊ถ๊ธˆ์ฆ์˜ ํ˜•ํƒœ๋กœ๋งŒ ์ œ๊ธฐ ๋˜์—ˆ์„ ๋ฟ์ธ ๋ฌธ์ œ๋ฅผ ํ•ด๊ฒฐํ•ด์ฃผ๋ฉฐ, ๊ทธ ํ†ต์ผ์— ๋„๋‹ฌํ•  ๋•Œ๊นŒ์ง€ ๋™์ผํ•œ ์„ธ๊ณ„์— ์†ํ•˜์ง€ ์•Š์•˜๋˜, ๊ทธ ๋•Œ๋ฌธ์— ์นธํŠธ๊ฐ€ ์‹ฌ์›ํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋งํ•œ ๋ฐ”๋Œ€๋กœ ์—ฐํ•ฉ๋  ์ˆ˜ ์—†์—ˆ๋‹ค๋˜ ์š”์†Œ๋“ค์„ ์กฐ์งํ•œ๋‹ค.

Ibid, p. 18

What answer? Answer from the vagueness? Is that means unity is immanent in the quality of the duration even before the unity? Or is it within the duration of the changing? Or shifting. Once this unity constructed until it is changed into a different world, it habitually maintains its world. Him as a unity of the constructed world. This changing should be a painful and aggressive one. Until then, he would be, or I would see him as a different from the others and not as my unity.

The condition of the seeable, which is stimulated by space or the knowledge, doesn’t satisfy my question of the seeable him (Well, obviously, I just started phenomenology of perception, so I guess there is a long way to go). But I remember Susan Sontag is questioning in her book about the pain from the war pictures. Are we used to its pain because photo exposed too often? Or are we getting a different way of affection?


  • Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, Phรฉnomรฉnologie De La Perception, Tel, 4 (Paris: Gallimard, 2009), p. 23; Merleau-Ponty, Maurice, and Donald A. Landes, Phenomenology of Perception (Abingdon, Oxonโ€ฏ; New York: Routledge, 2012), p. 16
  • Sontag, Susan, Regarding the Pain of Others (New York, N.Y: Picador, 2003)

Extra โžก๏ธŽ Action and Speech

Reference: Emmelhainz, Irmgard, โ€˜Can We Share a World Beyond Representation?โ€™, 106, 2020, pp, 1-10

In The Human Condition Arendt stresses repeatedly that action is primarily symbolic in character and that the web of human relationships is sustained by communicative interaction (HC, 178โ€“9, 184โ€“6, 199โ€“200). We may formulate it as follows. Action entails speech: by means of language we are able to articulate the meaning of our actions and to coordinate the actions of a plurality of agents. Conversely, speech entails action, not only in the sense that speech itself is a form of action, or that most acts are performed in the manner of speech, but in the sense that action is often the means whereby we check the sincerity of the speaker.

01

  • Lebenswelt: the world of common human experience and interpretation.
  • According to Arendt, modernity, propelled by the destruction of all tradition, is characterised by the irretrievable loss of the experience of shared meaning, which was previously created by talking to and making sense with one another. This loss is accompanied by the disappearance of a space for arguing, resining, argumentation: the space of politics, comprised of speech and action. ::Arendt, Hannah, Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought, Penguin Classics (New York: Penguin Books, 2006)::
  • As Gilles Deleuze put it, the link between man and the world has been broken. Modernity also means the replacement of โ€œsociety” and “communityโ€ by โ€œmass society.โ€
  • For Arendt, mass society is characterised by isolation and a lack of normal social relationships; as a result, consciousness of a common interest is absent.

04

  • For Hannah Arendt, the expansion of authoritarianism in Europes in the twentieth century stemmed from the alienation and loneliness brought about by the degradation of the world in common. โžก๏ธŽ ๋ฌธํ™”์  ์š”์†Œ๊ฐ€ ๊ฒฐํ•๋ฌ๋‹ค๊ธฐ ๋ณด๋‹ค ์ปค์ง€๋ฉด์„œ ํผ์ง„๊ฑฐ๊ฒ ์ง€
  • Representation โ€” the dispositif that, via speech and action, enables appearance in the world in common, and also the human capacity for the creation and dissemination of shared meaning and traditions โ€” has been hijacked by capitalism, authoritarianism, democracy, the internet, and spectacle. โžก๏ธŽ ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œ ๋””์Šคํฌ์ง€ํ‹ฐํ”„ ์˜๋ฏธ๋Š” ์ŠคํŠธ๋Ÿญ์ณ, ์ „ํ†ต๊ณผ ์˜๋ฏธ๋ฅผ ๊ตฌ์„ฑํ•˜๋Š” ๋””์Šคํฌ์ง€ํ‹ฐํ”„ โžก๏ธŽ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์˜ ๊ธ€์„ ๋‹ค์‹œ ์ฝ์–ด๋ณด์ž.
  • Speech and action โžก๏ธŽ ํ•œ๋‚˜ ์•„๋ ŒํŠธ์˜ ์Šคํ”ผ์น˜์™€ ์•ก์…˜์˜ ์˜๋ฏธ๋Š” ๋ญ์ง€?
    • ๊ณ ์ „์  ๊ตฌ๋ถ„์„ ๋”ฐ๋ฅธ ์•„๋ ŒํŠธ
    • ํด๋ฆฌ์Šค(polis) = ๊ณต๊ณต์  ์˜์—ญ -> ํ™œ๋™ โžก๏ธŽ speech
    • ์‚ฌํšŒ์  ์˜์—ญ โžก๏ธŽ ๊ฒฝ์ œ ํ™œ๋™ ๋ฐ ๊ฒฐ์‚ฌ ํ˜น์€ ์ง‘๋‹จ โžก๏ธŽ ์ƒ์˜ ์š•๊ตฌ๋ฅผ ํ•ด์†Œ ํ•˜๋Š” ์žฅ์†Œ
    • ์˜ค์ด์ฝ”์Šค(oikos) = ์‚ฌ์  ์˜์—ญ
  • ::๊ฐ๊ฐ์˜ ์˜์—ญ์—๋Š” ๊ฐ๊ฐ์˜ dispositif๊ฐ€ ์กด์žฌํ•˜๋Š” ๊ฑธ๊นŒ?::
  • ์—ฌ๊ธฐ์„œ ์•„๋งˆ๋„ ํ‘ธ์ฝ”์™€์˜ ์ฐจ์ด์ ์€ (ํ˜น์€ ๊ฐ™์€ ์ ์€) Political Iโ€™magination (19์„ธ๊ธฐ) reproducers a representative form of social cohesion. They did this by constructing and disseminating a world of shared meaning that expressed the alleged โ€œessenceโ€ of an imagined community: shared cultural history, iconography, language, food, and dress. โžก๏ธŽ ::Anderson, Benedict R. Oโ€™G, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism, Rev. ed (London ; New York: Verso, 2006)::
  • 1960๋…„๋Œ€๊ฒฝ์—์„  ์•„ํŠธ๊ณ„์—์„œ abandoned representation and dismissed representativity as totalitarian structures, as vehicles for a bland, sexist, and racist humanism and a trite universalism. โžก๏ธŽ ์ฒญ์†Œ๋…„๊ธฐ์— ์žˆ๋Š” ๊ฒƒ ์ฒ˜๋Ÿผ ์ŠคํŠธ๋Ÿญ์ฒ˜๋ฅผ ๊ฑฐ๋ถ€ํ–ˆ๊ณ  (๋งŒ๋“ค์–ด์ง„ ์ŠคํŠธ๋Ÿญ์ฒ˜) ๊ทธ๋Ÿฌ๋ฉด์„œ ๊ฐ์ž๊ฐ€ ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ์ž์‹ ์˜ ์  ๋”, ethnic origin, political struggle, or sexual orientation์„ ๋Œ€ํ‘œํ•˜๋ฉฐ ์ž…์žฅ์„ ๋ฐœํ‘œํ–ˆ๋‹ค.
  • Minorities
  • 1980s โ€˜90s ๊ฒฝ์—์„  representativity ๊ฐ€ ๋‹ค์‹œ ๋˜๋Œ์•„์™”๊ณ  with a vengeance through identity politics and consciousness-raising activism
  • A new, invisible social contract was drawn up in which individuals would now only speak on behalf of themselves as representatives of their own persona experiences of ethnic, political, or gendered specificities, with the mandate to address โ€œeveryoneโ€ and to secure recognition of โ€œmyโ€ ordeal โžก๏ธŽ ::๊ฒฐ๊ตญ self ๋Š” representation์œผ๋กœ ๋ฐ–์— ์กด์žฌํ•  ์ˆ˜ ์—†๊ฒŒ ๋œ ๊ฒƒ ์•„๋‹๊นŒ? ๋‚˜๋Š” ๋‚˜๋ฅผ represents ํ•œ๋‹ค. Self-representation. ํ•˜์ง€๋งŒ ๋งŒ์•ฝ์— ์ด๊ฒŒ ๊ณ„์† ๋œ๋‹ค๋ฉด, ๊ฒฐ๊ตญ ๋‚จ๋Š” ๊ฑด ํ…… ๋น„์–ด๋ฒ„๋ฆฐ representation.::
  • 20์„ธ๊ธฐ ํ›„๋ฐ˜์— globalisation dismantling of the referential economy of political and aesthetic modernity โžก๏ธŽ assigned artists universal representativity. Under globalisation, art is disseminated to a globalised mass society through and internationalised culture industry. โžก๏ธŽ ::์•„ํŠธ ๋ž€ ๊ทธ๋ฃน ์ž์ฒด๋กœ representation โžก๏ธŽ ์ด๊ฑด ์‚ฌ์‹ค ์•„ํŠธ๊ฐ€ ์•„ํŠธ๋งŒ์„ ์–˜๊ธฐํ•˜๊ฒŒ ๋œ ๊ณ„๊ธฐ๊ฐ€ ๋  ์ˆ˜๋„ ์žˆ๊ฒ ๋‹ค.::

07

  • The main problem with artworks that speak on behalf of the struggle of others, or that seek recognition for โ€œmy private ordeal.” is that they inhibit a moralising realm of non-shared meaning โžก๏ธŽ ::์˜๋ฏธ ์—†๋Š” ์™ธ์นจ:: โžก๏ธŽ ::์ด๊ฑด ๋‹ค์‹œ ๊ฐ™์€ ์งˆ๋ฌธ์œผ๋กœ ๋˜๋Œ์•„์˜จ๋‹ค, ํ˜ผ์ž์„œ๋งŒ ํ•˜๋Š” ์†Œ๋ฆฌ๋ฅผ ์ž‘์—…ํ•  ์˜๋ฏธ๊ฐ€ ์žˆ๋Š”๊ฐ€?:: โžก๏ธŽ ::์•„ํŠธ ํ•™๊ต์—์„œ์˜ ๋ฌธ์ œ์  ์ค‘์— ํ•˜๋‚˜๋Š”, ๊ฐœ๊ฐœ์ธ์˜ ๋ชฉ์†Œ๋ฆฌ์— ๊ท€๋ฅผ ๊ธฐ์šธ์ด๊ธฐ์— ์ ์  ๋” ๊ฐœ์ธ์ ์ด ๋˜์–ด๊ฐ€๋Š” ์งˆ๋ฌธ์ด ๋œ๋‹ค๋Š” ๊ฒƒ์— ์žˆ์„์ง€๋„ ๋ชฐ๋ผ.::
  • When despotic forms of empathy prevail, action and speech are reduced to sheer appearance. Speech without action โ€” such as speech that merely demands recognition โ€” fils to disclose the position that the speaking human occupies in relation to others and the world, beyond simple identitarian or subjective categories. In the opposite case โ€” when we have gestures without speech โ€” these gestures take the form of brute physical action without verbal accompaniment and are thus meaningless (like terrorist attacks or massacres in schools and public spaces.) โžก๏ธŽ ::์ด๊ฑฐ์•ผ ๋ง๋กœ ๋‚ด๊ฐ€ ์ปค๋ฎค๋‹ˆ์ผ€์ด์…˜์˜ ์ค‘์š”์„ฑ์„ ๋งํ–ˆ๋˜ ๋ถ€๋ถ„์ค‘์— ํ•˜๋‚˜๋‹ค::
  • For Arendt, actions are only made relevant by the spoken word, which identifies the speaker as the actor announcing what sheโ€™s is doing, thereby giving meaning to her actions, but only in relation to others. In other words, no other human behaviour is in greater need of speech than action

09

  • Through speech and action, we not only learn to understand each other as individual persons, but also to see the same world from on anotherโ€™s (sometimes opposing) standpoints. In this context, universality means that while everyone sees and hears from a different position, some people have the capacity to multiply their own point of view. โžก๏ธŽ ::Arendt, Hannah, Between Past and Future: Eight Exercises in Political Thought, Penguin Classics (New York: Penguin Books, 2006), p. 219.::

Seeable Relationship. Sayable connection. #02

This post is not organised writing or essay, but the fragmented thought.

From the last posting, I think it is worth to continue the topic. Although, I am interested in the topic of the moment of becoming ‘seeble’ or the after moment of the affection (I guess I should read Massumi again), it is still related what is ‘seeing,’ in Foucault’s term

First of all, what intrigues me is when Rajchman describe that Foucault’s seeing is not only visionary but is part of doing. There are two ‘doing’ in self-evidence prison, a participation or acceptance we can refuse. In Foucault’s idiom, รฉvidence is related to the acceptability of a practice. “It is to try to see how we might act on what cannot yet be seen in what we do. It is, in short, a “critical” art, and it is in exercising it that Foucault would be, in Deleuze’s term, a seer or voyant (p. 94).” Then, what is the seer? Deleuze explained Foucault’s seer as a someone who seeing unseen รฉvidneces that makes things we do acceptable or tolerable to us (Deleuze, 1986). In other word, Foucault opens up the conversation that unseen self-evidence, which is not hidden but unseeable. Rather deliver decisive answer but, a seer that make unseeable to seeable รชvidnece. If I can connect with this relationship, I may say relationship itself, or the moment itself can be an act of seer with out subject.

Foucault found the similarity of the historians eye to the fiction’s making visible the unseen space of seeing; making visible unseen manifest.

not to show (faire voir) the invisible, but to show the extent to which the invisibility of the visible is invisible. Hence [fiction] bears a profound kinship with space. . . .

Foucault/Blanchot, New York, Zone Books, 1987, p. 24.

Similar aim which showing how things might be otherwise, beyond our self-evidences, other possibilities into the life (I would like connect this in next post about the ‘clicking moment of the realisation’; what is realisation? is it from the invisibility? or unseen? and second question would be the relationship with the space, or the power of the space). Furthermore, Foucault continue to the ‘spatialisation’ of the knowledge. Rather than perceptual evidence through a logic of inference, inductive or deductive, as modern western scholars obsession of the observation, the knowledge in fact, constructed as fiction writers.

Here, I should make clear about my understanding, that it is not about the validation of the philosophy or the science, but the social construction of the knowledge and the space, until the eye no longer deciphers the “prose of the world,” and where, therefore, “the eye was … destined to see and only see, and the ear to hear and only hear (Foucault, The Order of Things, p. 43.). There are many way of the “modes of spatialisation,” such as Natural science’s “technology of the visual”: observatories, microscopes, cyclotrons. And experimentation is central to them. This is not only the history of the philosophy or science, but in the fine art, where validation of the eye had been playing main role. While machinery vision replaced human vision, human eyes had located in new way of spatialisation(let’s keep talking about this later.) Of course, both related representation of the language in theFrench idea which voir with รฉvidence(isn’t it same for Deleuze? Folding the idea from the french), and the knowledge as a spatialised contents in the brain. Is it lost space? displace? Here, again question is what is Foucault’s ‘spatialisation?‘ what does it means when he said space makes knowledge seeable? what’s Foucault’s apparatus?

One of the essential conditions for the epistemological “thaw” of medicine at the end of the 18th century was the organization of the hospital as an “examining apparatus.”

Foucault, Discipline and Punish, p. 185.


Seeable Relationship. Sayable connection. #01

When I first saw him.

The seeing is not about the biological vision, but a moment of recognition about a person, as in front of you or in the same space. It can be anywhere–a first meeting, or a date, or in a party. This visibility can be triggered by anything, from the voice or his perfume or small gesture. Actually, it doesn’t matter what makes him seeable because there is no decisive factor for each case. That moment comes without reason or definite time but suddenly make him seeable. Only that time, he arrives in your life, changes my seeing into a different angle. It is not like the romantic movie that illustrates this moment with bright sunshine or the sound of the bell. It is plain moment, something made you notice him. From that moment, the memories with him pile up and becoming accumulation in the part of life.

I have small doubt about what Foucault said “form of visibility.” As Deleuze pointed out, he is an “audiovisual” thinker. His idea about the relationship between space, knowledge, and power are related to visibility. Human’s physical interaction with spatiality creates seeable knowledge, which has been generated in different disciplines and knowledge. Yet, this visibility cannot explain the visibility of the moment of recognition in the individual relationship. My experiment started a long time ago by taking off my glasses. I cannot see clearly, his face nor his features. This restriction of the one sense, however, cannot prevent seeing him once I recognised him. Once he became seeable, vision restriction is not a huge problem to make him feelable. I can see him in the crowd, I can feel him without seeing him. Maybe, this is what Foucault wanted to assert in his book; the power of the moment of becoming seeable. The moment of the awareness.

It generated a few questions; when I could “see” him? Why I can still “see” him? When he becomes a personal relationship? About the personal relationship, when it becomes stronger than the moment of the seeable, personally, it is the moment when he got the name. Not a name of his own, but a name from me. As name becoming more personal, his feature becoming stronger inside of me. One Korean poem I love, Kim Chun Soo’s ‘Flower‘ goes

Before speaking her name
she had been nothing but a gesture.

When I spoke her name,
she came to me and became a flower.

Now who will speak my name,
one fitting this colour and fragrance of mine,
as I had spoken hers
So that I may go to her and become her flower.

We all yearn to become something.
I yearn to become an unforgettable meaning to you
And you to me

Seeable, is more to see the gesture of the form. It has no particular subjectivity until it gets its name. However, I am still questioning, how I noticed him, his form of gesture, feelable gesture, the moment of the seeable to feelable. When he was “nothing but a gesture.” It is difficult question, and I have, yet, no answer about this questions. I only can say, it is beautiful changing, beautiful my own changing, and beautiful forgetting. But I cannot figure out what happened in that moment. This visibility is strong enough to make me forget about before the seeable moment.

What happened exactly?
Why I can see you?
Why I am looking for you?
Why your gesture makes me feel?

I shout a cry

I’m listening to music. What else I can do? In this time, in this mood. I cannot read anymore, I cannot watch anything. I won’t call it depression or sorrow, whatever makes me sound like weak or stupid. I know I am already self-indulgent, but if you want to call me a drama queen, then, so be it. I won’t deny or stop it. If that’s what would see me. How can I do? I can’t change you, as I won’t change myself.

I have anger inside. A devil inside of me. Well, I actually do not know what is inside me. Sometimes, it appears as anger, and sometimes, it explodes as sorrow. I have tried so long time to explain what this monster or real me inside looks like. It is eagerly trying to devour all of you until nothing left on you. It needs to have your everything, and it must know abyss underneath your heart where even you don’t know it exists. But it says I can’t show my desire to you, because it is ugliest and unlovable impairment. Instead, I need to suffer every moment that I can’t have you. So, I leave, before I can’t handle my desire, I fly away even before anything started. All the time. Like poltroon. Before my biggest fear actualised, before I damage someone I love with this horror, as it has damaged me so long time.

Ask, the explanation of everything that I did. Torture, everything that I didn’t do. Criticise, what I wanted to try to do. Tell, I am not deserve anything.

I just wanted a hug. And tell me everything is fine.
I just wanted a hold my hand. And tell me you like naive me.
I just wanted a silly smile. And tell me, I have you.

Instead,
I shout a cry.

Pneumatic disappearance

Why do I like moving image? Is it because it makes me less lonely? or it makes me hard to think anything else than images? When looking back at my work at BA and MA, most of them were cute drawings or pseudo infographics (well, if I can go back to that time, I would erase all of them.) When did I change to video practice? I actually very clearly remember when it was because it was my foremost intense experience I ever have done. I did like liveness of the performance with my video and audiences. Shockingly made me alive. I felt I can disappear and just let my work alone. There was an image that moving seems like it took over my life into themselves and create a new conversation with the people.

Photography or still images doesnโ€™t make me that life. Even if that is performative practice, it doesnโ€™t talk back to the other people, instead, it creates a monologue itself. It feels like it is just a diary or doodles, a trace that I made a trace for someone, it is still part of me. However, the moving image takes my life from me. Soon after I present it, it starts performs itself within a certain time and space, where it doesnโ€™t need me anymore. In that space, I am peeping around that part of me talking to the other, which will reflect me but I would never control with. It is certain death. Not a permanent death but partial death that will be replaced by new life from the presented work.

I want to make my statue that can replace me. Pour my sorrows into that statue so I can keep mine instead.

Desired Desires

I just suddenly started writing and didn’t notice this long… just wrote anything without conclusion…—Sometimes I feel that the connotation of ‘desire’ is, even in Art institutions, inevitably connected with negativity. In many time, desire to live, to be loved, to be happy, and beauty–either sexually or sacred, is conceived as a manifestation of the chaotic and naive expression.


“Pure” babies are monstrously demonstrating those desires. For instance, the desire to devour all the knowledge from the world is associated with the desire to survive. However, as an icon of the “pureness,” those emotions have conceived something that should be protected until it is somehow stained with ‘black desires.’ Surely, it shouldn’t be compared to a ‘pure baby,’ who has no freedom or ability to think about the freedom, with a grown human’s desires in ‘beautifully constructed society,’ which must be protected for the consensual civilisation.

All the anger, recently has shown in many countries, are delivered by the lack of satisfaction of the desires. Which is, I believe, should be the most basic fulfilment; ‘Desire to Live as a Human being.” In my opinion, the negativity of desire is not coming from ‘pure desire,’ but from the laking in desire. Backfire of this poverty of desire causes anger, fury, and finally abandonment. Which we can observe from young people in East Asia(I’m talking here mostly, South Korea and Japan, where young people’s desire are rejected and denied.) This is my most concern recently. More and more desires become and camouflaged into pure anger, as it is the answer of all. However, show your desire, is not means that break down everything with anger, but building the foundation to achieve those desire, which I believe the most potent stimulus for life. Babies are not crying to angry, they cry to fulfil their basic desire.

There should be a reason why these disguises happening. But it is impossible to grasp the one reason for the current social problem, and of course because Iโ€™m not a expert for social or economic, so it isnโ€™t make sense that I conclude the reason here. But I’m studying communication, especially for visual and social. Therefore, I believe is it worth to tackle this problem from the ‘desire’ point of view. I believe the power of desires, but before we really understand what is desired and what we want, it cannot show its potentiality and possibility.

Design โ€“ Directed, controlled, and persuasive

The frame started its history accompany with the image. It shifted its form from the spatial environment, virtual image, spatial object, and once again into the spatial and time-based environment.

In cinema, it is possible to speak message through the narrative or by actor’s line. The narrative consists ofย the movement of the shot and changing the scene, and linear timeline.ย In design, rhetoric leads a role as a speakingย person. Meaning of the term rhetoric โ€œthe art of using language so as to persuade or influence others.โ€ It could be a colour and a form whichย contains information about the speech. As soon as the move from concept to visible manifestation is made, and especially to a manifestation as highly organised as a timetable, then the means used become rhetorical. Another definition of rhetoric might be tried, the art of directed communication – directed, that is, both internally to organise the material communication and externally to persuade an audience. Moreover, rhetoric in design can beย deliveredย by another form/medium. To persuade or influence, narrative and rhetoric are shifting the form ‘frame’ as a directed vision. As the frame guide the order of the image in the comic books or traditional Egyptianย wall painting, it impliesย the order of the event and strengthens the message, as narrative and time does in the cinema frame.

Technologies open narratives and make the construction of navigatable and immersive narrative environment. Now, each frame does not shows fixed and decided narrative, but exchangeable and discovered. Now, not only viewers gaze moves, and subject in the narrative’s movement influence message. However,ย The movementย of the UK’s governmentย shows that the frame could make two separate stories into one. The frame in the Youtube channels applied cinematic language, for example, ‘cinema mode’.

The impact of the frame, I believe, is not only limited within the interface but also individual laptop screen. The narrative or rhetoric is already made to some degree and the user opens theirย device up. The physical frame is not playing a role as a spatial environment that configuring the image. Expanded physical frame space, such as multi-user, distributed, mobile, ubiquitous, wearable, mixed reality, increasingly broaden the range of experimental representation.

On the other hand, within the interface, which is controlled by system and operators offered imagery inhabited information spaces, ‘typical results are self-reflexive products where the ideological underpinnings of their commercial stratagems remain unchanged (Shaw, 2012)’. No matter how much new digital technologies seduced the user with an enhanced image, ‘they tend to promulgate reactionary paradigms of the cinematic experience and of societal engagement with new media (Shaw, 2012)’. This comment can be interpreted in a way that, this is the time to design language at interfaceย should be studied toward a new type of the language.

The cinematic imaginary dominates screen world. However, the distortion of the experience derived by the physicality of the frame, the immateriality of the new media, and old design language is greatest ever before. The messages easily become perverse and misdelivered. The noise of the language widens the creativity of the imagery. However, we should wisely distinguish between noise and distortion.

 

Shaw, J., 2012. New-media art and the renewal of the cinematic imaginary. Technoetic Arts, 10(2), pp.173โ€“177.

 

 

 

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