201904211525 Peter Wollen’s relationship between photography and time

Photography is like a point,
Film like a line.
— Peter Wollen

Photography near-zero duration and located in an ever-receding ‘then’. At the same time, the spectator’s ‘now’, the moment of looking at the image, has no fixed duration.

Roland Barthes Barthes’ antipathy towards the cinema, which is because his aesthetic is governed by prejudice against linear time and especially against the narrative.


  1. Bernard Comrie’s aspect rather than tense
  • Types of situation, in relation to change (or potential for change) and perspective as well as duration. It is the interlocking of these underlying semantic categories which determines the various aspectual forms taken by verbs in different languages (grosso modo).
    • States
      • Processes
      • Events
        • durative events
        • punctual events. Alongside these categories aspect also involves
    • The concepts of the iterative,
    • The habitual
    • The characteristic.

Photograph’s Captions

사진의 경우 움직이지 않는다, duration도 없다— 비주얼적으로—하지만 그렇다고 해서 그것들이 시간적 속성이 아에 없다는 것은 아니다. 그 예시로 사진이

  • 뉴스 사진 Photography’s captions에서 주로 보이는 non-progressive present (in this case, a narrative present, since the reference is to past time) — events
    ‘What was it like just before and what’s the result going to be?’
  • 사진 아트의 캡션에서는 noun-phrases, lacking verb-forms의 특징을 주로 보인다. — states
    ‘How did it come to be like this or has it always been the same?’
  • 다큐멘터리 사진에서는 progressive present을 종종 찾아볼수 있다. — 대부분 states, 종종 processes
    ‘Is anything going to happen to end or to interrupt this?’
  • 특히나 Muybridge’s 의 사진의 캡션에서는 imperfective가 지속적으로 사용된다. — processes

Lumiere’s L’Arrosseur arrose

  • a man is watering the garden (process)
  • a child comes and stamps on the hose (event)
  • the man is soaked and the garden empty (state)

영화는 Movement 보다는 Squencing으로 이러한 사진적 duration의 흔적을 찾아볼 수 있다.

Barthes의 Camera Lucida 에서 사진은 포즈를 취한 것과 취하지 않은 사진으로 나뉜다. 포즈를 취하지 않은 사진에서는, 그것이 죽어있는 사진이라 할지라도, 그는 죽음을 보지 않는다. 사진에서 사람의 죽음은 state가 아닌 event이다.

Capa photograph of the Spanish Civil War soldier. Spain, 1936.



201904192103 Wheeling motion and Memory


13세기 부터 유행한 기억술은 기본적으로 수집(collection)과 재수집(recollection 회상)을 통해 공간을 맵핑하는 것과 연결 된다.

Marcus Tullius Cicero’s version의 경우가 가장 유명한데, Quintilian가 Cicero의 기억의 건축적 이해를 이론을 공식화한 이론은 문화적 랜드마크가 되었다. Cicero와 Quintilian에게 기억이란 inner writing으로 Places are the site of a mnemonic palimpsest.

Some place is chosen of the largest possible extent and characterised by the utmost variety, such as a spacious house divided into a number of rooms. Everything of note therein is carefully imprinted on the mind … The first thought is placed, as it were, in the forecourt; the second, let us say, in the living-room; the remainder are placed in due order all round the impluvium, and entrusted not merely to bedrooms and parlours, but even to the care of statues and the like. This done, when the memory of the facts requires to be revived, all these places are visited in turn … What I have spoken of as being done in a house can equally well be done in connection with public buildings, a long journey, or going through a city or even with pictures. Or we may even imagine such places to ourselves. We require therefore places, real or imaginary, and images or simulacra which we must, of course, invent for ourselves … As Cicero says, ‘we use places as wax .

13세기 기억술 – Ramon Lull

Reeling motion ➡ 기억술

Ramon Lull introduced movement into memory by experimenting with circular motion and creating an art of memory based on setting figures on revolving wheels. Frances A. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), especially chapter eight.

Giulio Camillo (1480-1544)

Camillo의 경우는 “기억 극장”을 하나의 콜렉션으로 개발했는데, inner image가 묵상에 모아지면 그것들은 육체적 사인으로 표현되고 그러므로 구체화 되고 극장에서 보여지게 된다고 생각했다.

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

18th century — Picturesque space ➡︎ Garden

Auguste Choisy ➡︎ Le Corbusier ➡︎ Eisenstein

18세기에 들어와서 movement와 연계된 연구가 시작됨.

Auguste Choisy’s picturesque view ⬅︎ 아이젠슈테인이 사용함

This philosophy of space embodied a form of fluid, emotive geography.

Le Corbusier

그가 처음 while on the move, site-seeing, streetwalking의 개념으로 건축적 무빙이미지를 적립했음. ➡︎ 이는 현재의 갤러리, 뮤지엄에서 보여주는 무빙 이미지의 전시와 연결되며 With architectural sites that are scenically assembled and imaginatively mobilized, an inner site-seeing is atmospherically produced.

그 외에 가든과 메모리의 대한 글들

  • See also Barbara Maria Stafford, Voyage into Substance (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984), p. 4.
  • Hohn Dixon Hunt, Gardens and the Picturesque (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992).
  • The legacy of the picturesque, in particular, was ‘to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eye.’ // Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies in a Point of View (London and New York, 1927), p. 4.

프로이드 — Mystic Writing Pad

Sigmund Freud, ‘A Note on the Mystic Writing Pad,’ in Complete Psychological Works, vol. 9 (London: Standard Edition, 1956).

Mary Carruthers — Memory Theatre

Carruthers의 경우 기억술에 대해 ‘a memory-image’의 효율서을 말하며 “회상”이라는 것은 re-enactment of experience, which involves…imagination and emotion. pp. 59-60.

Art Examples

Douglas Gordon

Psycho, 1993 — Video installation

고든의 작업은 콜렉티브 메모리로서의 필름을 묘사한다.

In fact, Gordon’s work shows that film is our collective memory, not simply because of its subject matter but because of the form that represents it: a technique that goes far back in time and has its roots in the ars memoriae.

Shirin Neshat

Turbulent (1998), Rapture (1999), and Fervor (2000)

On filmic site-seeing, see Giuliana Bruno, ‘Site-Seeing: Architecture and the Moving Image,’ Wide Angle, IXX, no. 4 (October 1997), pp. 8-24.



Main ➡ Allen, R. & Turvey, M., 2003. Camera Obscura, Camera Lucida, Amsterdam University Press.

De Oratore, trans. E. W. Sutton and Harris Rackman (London: Loeb Classical Library, 1942)

Marcus Fabius Quintilian’s rendition of the subject is laid out in his Institutio oratoria, vol. 4, trans. H. E. Butler (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1922), pp. 221-23

Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 59-60.

Erasmus, Epistolae, ed. P. S. Allen, et al., vol. 9, p. 479. Cited in Yates, The Art of Memory, p. 132.

Cultural Theory 문화 이론

  • Benjamin’s cultural theory is significantly oriented toward the avant-garde as the corollary(필연적 결과적) to the implicit (내제하는) dangers of the society of the spectacle.
  • @Guy_Debord와 이 사상을 공유한다. -> an insistence on dismantling the society of the spectacle)
  • @Benjamin’s understanding of the urgency of his own critical practice as a response to a history in which image culture was closely tied to political current & was undergoing rapid change with new technologies.

Russell, C., 2018. Archiveology, London: Duke University Press.

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