The fantastical element of Méliès’s films is to be able to see what media and mediation usually don’t make visible— this is why Méliès’s films are about film, and more broadly, about technological mediation. What is not mediated, only one can gain through the mediation.
Long Distance Wireless Photography (1908) Georges Méliès
The Mysterious Retort – Georges Méliès (1905)
The Black Imp – Georges Méliès (1905)
- Socrates and Plato -> communication is the presence
- Heidegger and hermeneutics turn -> communication is the interpretation
- Habermas and discussions over the public sphere -> communication is discourse).
- Frankfurt school and Adorno, Horkheimer -> culture industry as technologies of domination.
- Walter Benjamin -> form of reproducibility. ( Through which media escape property and become the perceptual apparatus adequate to the revolutionary tasks of the working class.
- Toronto school -> media-ecological approach, which oscillates between the categories of bias and synthesis.
- British and French -> synthesise culture, language, and ideology. Raymond William(Roland Barthes+Louis Althusser => generalise the category of the text beyond the literary, cultural studies came to emphasise the oscillations between writing and reading, or between encoding decoding.