13세기 부터 유행한 기억술은 기본적으로 수집(collection)과 재수집(recollection 회상)을 통해 공간을 맵핑하는 것과 연결 된다.
Marcus Tullius Cicero’s version의 경우가 가장 유명한데, Quintilian가 Cicero의 기억의 건축적 이해를 이론을 공식화한 이론은 문화적 랜드마크가 되었다. Cicero와 Quintilian에게 기억이란 inner writing으로 Places are the site of a mnemonic palimpsest.
Some place is chosen of the largest possible extent and characterised by the utmost variety, such as a spacious house divided into a number of rooms. Everything of note therein is carefully imprinted on the mind … The first thought is placed, as it were, in the forecourt; the second, let us say, in the living-room; the remainder are placed in due order all round the impluvium, and entrusted not merely to bedrooms and parlours, but even to the care of statues and the like. This done, when the memory of the facts requires to be revived, all these places are visited in turn … What I have spoken of as being done in a house can equally well be done in connection with public buildings, a long journey, or going through a city or even with pictures. Or we may even imagine such places to ourselves. We require therefore places, real or imaginary, and images or simulacra which we must, of course, invent for ourselves … As Cicero says, ‘we use places as wax .
13세기 기억술 – Ramon Lull
Ramon Lull introduced movement into memory by experimenting with circular motion and creating an art of memory based on setting figures on revolving wheels. Frances A. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), especially chapter eight.
Giulio Camillo (1480-1544)
Camillo의 경우는 “기억 극장”을 하나의 콜렉션으로 개발했는데, inner image가 묵상에 모아지면 그것들은 육체적 사인으로 표현되고 그러므로 구체화 되고 극장에서 보여지게 된다고 생각했다.
Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)
18th century — Picturesque space
18세기에 들어와서 movement와 연계된 연구가 시작됨.
Auguste Choisy’s picturesque view
This philosophy of space embodied a form of fluid, emotive geography.
- Choisy에서 시작된 Le Corbusier와의 관계를 보려면 Etlin, R.A., 1987. Le Corbusier, Choisy, and French Hellenism. The Art Bulletin, 69(2), pp.264–278.
- 아이젠슈타인과 건축의 관계를 보려면 Eisenstein, S.M., Bois, Y.-A. & Glenny, M., 1989. Montage and architecture. Assemblage, (10), pp.110–131. Vidler, A., 1993. The Explosion of Space. Assemblage, pp.44–59.
그가 처음 while on the move, site-seeing, streetwalking의 개념으로 건축적 무빙이미지를 적립했음.
그 외에 가든과 메모리의 대한 글들
- See also Barbara Maria Stafford, Voyage into Substance (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984), p. 4.
- Hohn Dixon Hunt, Gardens and the Picturesque (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992).
- The legacy of the picturesque, in particular, was ‘to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eye.’ // Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies in a Point of View (London and New York, 1927), p. 4.
프로이드 — Mystic Writing Pad
Sigmund Freud, ‘A Note on the Mystic Writing Pad,’ in Complete Psychological Works, vol. 9 (London: Standard Edition, 1956).
Mary Carruthers — Memory Theatre
Carruthers의 경우 기억술에 대해 ‘a memory-image’의 효율서을 말하며 “회상”이라는 것은 re-enactment of experience, which involves…imagination and emotion. pp. 59-60.
Psycho, 1993 — Video installation
고든의 작업은 콜렉티브 메모리로서의 필름을 묘사한다.
In fact, Gordon’s work shows that film is our collective memory, not simply because of its subject matter but because of the form that represents it: a technique that goes far back in time and has its roots in the ars memoriae.
Turbulent (1998), Rapture (1999), and Fervor (2000)
De Oratore, trans. E. W. Sutton and Harris Rackman (London: Loeb Classical Library, 1942)
Marcus Fabius Quintilian’s rendition of the subject is laid out in his Institutio oratoria, vol. 4, trans. H. E. Butler (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1922), pp. 221-23
Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 59-60.
Erasmus, Epistolae, ed. P. S. Allen, et al., vol. 9, p. 479. Cited in Yates, The Art of Memory, p. 132.