201904211525 Peter Wollen’s relationship between photography and time

Photography is like a point,
Film like a line.
— Peter Wollen

Photography near-zero duration and located in an ever-receding ‘then’. At the same time, the spectator’s ‘now’, the moment of looking at the image, has no fixed duration.

Roland Barthes Barthes’ antipathy towards the cinema, which is because his aesthetic is governed by prejudice against linear time and especially against the narrative.


  1. Bernard Comrie’s aspect rather than tense
  • Types of situation, in relation to change (or potential for change) and perspective as well as duration. It is the interlocking of these underlying semantic categories which determines the various aspectual forms taken by verbs in different languages (grosso modo).
    • States
      • Processes
      • Events
        • durative events
        • punctual events. Alongside these categories aspect also involves
    • The concepts of the iterative,
    • The habitual
    • The characteristic.

Photograph’s Captions

사진의 경우 움직이지 않는다, duration도 없다— 비주얼적으로—하지만 그렇다고 해서 그것들이 시간적 속성이 아에 없다는 것은 아니다. 그 예시로 사진이

  • 뉴스 사진 Photography’s captions에서 주로 보이는 non-progressive present (in this case, a narrative present, since the reference is to past time) — events
    ‘What was it like just before and what’s the result going to be?’
  • 사진 아트의 캡션에서는 noun-phrases, lacking verb-forms의 특징을 주로 보인다. — states
    ‘How did it come to be like this or has it always been the same?’
  • 다큐멘터리 사진에서는 progressive present을 종종 찾아볼수 있다. — 대부분 states, 종종 processes
    ‘Is anything going to happen to end or to interrupt this?’
  • 특히나 Muybridge’s 의 사진의 캡션에서는 imperfective가 지속적으로 사용된다. — processes

Lumiere’s L’Arrosseur arrose

  • a man is watering the garden (process)
  • a child comes and stamps on the hose (event)
  • the man is soaked and the garden empty (state)

영화는 Movement 보다는 Squencing으로 이러한 사진적 duration의 흔적을 찾아볼 수 있다.

Barthes의 Camera Lucida 에서 사진은 포즈를 취한 것과 취하지 않은 사진으로 나뉜다. 포즈를 취하지 않은 사진에서는, 그것이 죽어있는 사진이라 할지라도, 그는 죽음을 보지 않는다. 사진에서 사람의 죽음은 state가 아닌 event이다.

Capa photograph of the Spanish Civil War soldier. Spain, 1936.



201904192103 Wheeling motion and Memory


13세기 부터 유행한 기억술은 기본적으로 수집(collection)과 재수집(recollection 회상)을 통해 공간을 맵핑하는 것과 연결 된다.

Marcus Tullius Cicero’s version의 경우가 가장 유명한데, Quintilian가 Cicero의 기억의 건축적 이해를 이론을 공식화한 이론은 문화적 랜드마크가 되었다. Cicero와 Quintilian에게 기억이란 inner writing으로 Places are the site of a mnemonic palimpsest.

Some place is chosen of the largest possible extent and characterised by the utmost variety, such as a spacious house divided into a number of rooms. Everything of note therein is carefully imprinted on the mind … The first thought is placed, as it were, in the forecourt; the second, let us say, in the living-room; the remainder are placed in due order all round the impluvium, and entrusted not merely to bedrooms and parlours, but even to the care of statues and the like. This done, when the memory of the facts requires to be revived, all these places are visited in turn … What I have spoken of as being done in a house can equally well be done in connection with public buildings, a long journey, or going through a city or even with pictures. Or we may even imagine such places to ourselves. We require therefore places, real or imaginary, and images or simulacra which we must, of course, invent for ourselves … As Cicero says, ‘we use places as wax .

13세기 기억술 – Ramon Lull

Reeling motion ➡ 기억술

Ramon Lull introduced movement into memory by experimenting with circular motion and creating an art of memory based on setting figures on revolving wheels. Frances A. Yates, The Art of Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1966), especially chapter eight.

Giulio Camillo (1480-1544)

Camillo의 경우는 “기억 극장”을 하나의 콜렉션으로 개발했는데, inner image가 묵상에 모아지면 그것들은 육체적 사인으로 표현되고 그러므로 구체화 되고 극장에서 보여지게 된다고 생각했다.

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

18th century — Picturesque space ➡︎ Garden

Auguste Choisy ➡︎ Le Corbusier ➡︎ Eisenstein

18세기에 들어와서 movement와 연계된 연구가 시작됨.

Auguste Choisy’s picturesque view ⬅︎ 아이젠슈테인이 사용함

This philosophy of space embodied a form of fluid, emotive geography.

Le Corbusier

그가 처음 while on the move, site-seeing, streetwalking의 개념으로 건축적 무빙이미지를 적립했음. ➡︎ 이는 현재의 갤러리, 뮤지엄에서 보여주는 무빙 이미지의 전시와 연결되며 With architectural sites that are scenically assembled and imaginatively mobilized, an inner site-seeing is atmospherically produced.

그 외에 가든과 메모리의 대한 글들

  • See also Barbara Maria Stafford, Voyage into Substance (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1984), p. 4.
  • Hohn Dixon Hunt, Gardens and the Picturesque (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1992).
  • The legacy of the picturesque, in particular, was ‘to enable the imagination to form the habit of feeling through the eye.’ // Christopher Hussey, The Picturesque: Studies in a Point of View (London and New York, 1927), p. 4.

프로이드 — Mystic Writing Pad

Sigmund Freud, ‘A Note on the Mystic Writing Pad,’ in Complete Psychological Works, vol. 9 (London: Standard Edition, 1956).

Mary Carruthers — Memory Theatre

Carruthers의 경우 기억술에 대해 ‘a memory-image’의 효율서을 말하며 “회상”이라는 것은 re-enactment of experience, which involves…imagination and emotion. pp. 59-60.

Art Examples

Douglas Gordon

Psycho, 1993 — Video installation

고든의 작업은 콜렉티브 메모리로서의 필름을 묘사한다.

In fact, Gordon’s work shows that film is our collective memory, not simply because of its subject matter but because of the form that represents it: a technique that goes far back in time and has its roots in the ars memoriae.

Shirin Neshat

Turbulent (1998), Rapture (1999), and Fervor (2000)

On filmic site-seeing, see Giuliana Bruno, ‘Site-Seeing: Architecture and the Moving Image,’ Wide Angle, IXX, no. 4 (October 1997), pp. 8-24.



Main ➡ Allen, R. & Turvey, M., 2003. Camera Obscura, Camera Lucida, Amsterdam University Press.

De Oratore, trans. E. W. Sutton and Harris Rackman (London: Loeb Classical Library, 1942)

Marcus Fabius Quintilian’s rendition of the subject is laid out in his Institutio oratoria, vol. 4, trans. H. E. Butler (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1922), pp. 221-23

Mary Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of Memory in Medieval Culture (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992), pp. 59-60.

Erasmus, Epistolae, ed. P. S. Allen, et al., vol. 9, p. 479. Cited in Yates, The Art of Memory, p. 132.

201904151314 Camera Obscura, Camera Lucida

Annette Michelson

Malcolm Turvey – Introduction {Allen:2003ku}

Mid 1960s Creating a ‘crisis of criticism’

  1. Creating a ‘crisis of criticism’
    • 새롭게 따오르는 미니멀리스트 조각, 필름, 그리고 댄스, Michelson diagnosed this ‘crisis of criticism’ to be the result of what she called Minimalism’s ‘apodictic’ character (RM 13; AP 56), which resisted the traditional ‘critical techniques’ of ‘aesthetic metaphor, gesture, or statement’ (RM 13).
    • 데리다를 미국에 소개시킴과 함께 시작된
    • 그리하여 떠오른 새로운 방식의 필요성 In order to do justice to Minimalism’s ‘resistance to semantic function’ (AP 55), a whole new repertory of technique and conceptual frameworks were needed by critics.
    • 대표적으로 분석한 the three major Minimalist media: Morris (sculpture, 1969), Michael Snow (film, 1971), Yvonne Rainer (dance, 1974).
    • Idealist (관념론자) ➡ Pollock or a Kline 과 다른 Minimalism (more general trend toward questioning the ‘sovereignty’ of subjectivity that was also evident in contemporary French thought.
    • 큐브릭에 대한 해석 “Bodies in Space. {Michelson:1969ti}”
  2. 미니멀리즘을 이해하기 위한 크리틱의 한계점을 극복하기 위한 새로운 아트에 대한 이해, 새로운 해석의 파라다임 을 주장.
    • “for us, after all, the conditions of experience, of perception and apperception, eliciting, within our culture, a response to those perceptions which is cognitive. Our perception of the work of art informs us of the nature of consciousness. This is what we mean when we say – as I do say – that, although art no longer means or refers, it does have a deeply cognitive function. (Michelson, A., 1979. About Snow. October, 8, p 57.)
    • 모리스의 작업은 관습적인 미학적인 관점의 ‘synthesized virtual space’ 로서의 조각 오브젝트와 비미학적인 ‘operational’ 공간으로의 뮤지엄과 갤러리 — 혹은 어떤 실재 환경 “ we live and act” — 와의 구별을 전복 시킨다.

Box with the Sound of its Own Making” by Robert Morris

  • 미쉘슨이 주장한 모리스의 작업”Corner Piece”은 스펙테이터에게 질문을 던지고 있다. 시간성은 “인간의 인지와 미적경험의 컨디션 혹은 미디엄이며”, “안다 (퐁티의 말을 빌려)”라는 것은 몸이 주어진 환경에서 작용한다는 것이다.”
    • Vertov의 Man with a Movie Camera은 또한 is to transform his camera ‘from a Magician into an Epistemologist,’ from a tool of illusion into a tool of enlightenment, through a ‘revelation, an exposure of the terms and dynamics of cinematic illusionism.’ MM
    • 미쉘슨의 성취엔 새로운 “해석 interpretation”에만 있지 않다 ( ➡ art is conceived of as prompting reflection on philosophical topics on the part of the spectator, was invented by her ex nihilo ➡ 서양적 해석 ➡ enlightenment 의 관점에서 나온 해석: true knowlege는 그 자신에 대한 질문에서 나오며 아트는 “질문”하는 것에 도움을 준다).
    • for example, see it as a broadening of Brechtian (art is conceived of as occasioning in the spectator a reflection on socio-political realities ) and Greenbergian (medium-specific properties) ‘reflexive’ models of art.
    • 미쉘슨 has shown that art can potentially do a lot more than ‘express’ the ‘personality’ of its author.
    • Bordwell 의 질문: 무엇이 미적 지각과 비미적 종류들을 구별하는가? ‘What, then, distinguishes aesthetic perception and cognition from the nonaesthetic variety?
      In our culture, aesthetic activity deploys such skills for nonpractical ends. In experiencing art, instead of focusing on the pragmatic results of perception, we turn our attention to the very process itself. What is nonconscious in everyday mental life becomes consciously attended to’ (Bordwell, Narration in the Fiction Film [Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985], p. 33)”.
    • 미쉘슨은 Modernism의 특정 모델에 주목한다. one in which the function of advanced art is of necessity to philosophise due to modernism’s ‘elevation of doubt to an esthetic principle’ (CK 59)
    • 이 모델은 두가지 form의 구별에 영향을 받았다.
      ‘secular’ type (accepts the impossibility of theological or metaphysical certainty as the modern condition) ‘religious’ or ‘idealist’ type (searches for aesthetic substitutes for the theological certainties lost in a secular age.)
    • 이 모델에 따르면, 모더니스트들의 리얼리즘과 19세기 중반의 “모방”에 대한 거부는 크리스챤에서 secular 사회로의 전환으로 인한 ‘서양의 형이상학의 침몰’의 결과였다.
    • 결국 모더니스트들은 정해진 모방적인 질서적인 리얼리티에 대해 더 이상 관심이 없었다. 대신 그들은 지각안의 the nature of reality, the nature of consciousness을 주제로 삼았다.
    • 이 모델은 추상 표현주의 ➡


  • has seemed to almost every major avant-garde movement to instantiate its aspirations:

There is a special sense in which almost all the major authentic movements and styles of this century – Futurism, Surrealism, Dadaism, Constructivism – reacted to the growth of cinema. Each fresh revision of esthetic and social values staked its claim upon film, claiming as well that its aspirations and energies subsumed and articulated a filmic ontology. Thus [for example], the early developments of montage spoke to Surrealists as the conjoining of disparate objects in the synthesis of Lautréaumont’s Encounter, rendering concrete and vivid that Encounter as the primary mode of consciousness. (RH 49-50)

  • Cinema’s freedom — freedom to question, like the philosopher or scientist, the order of things, a freedom rooted in the ‘crisis in the Western metaphysical tradition,’ best allows the artist to philosophise, to ‘elevate doubt to an aesthetic principle,’ to question ‘the nature of reality, the nature of consciousness in and through perception.’

Cinema reintroduces not only ‘lived reality,’ but an entirely new and seemingly limitless range of structural relationships allowing for the reconciliation of ‘lived reality’ with ‘artistic form’. (CK 58-59)

  • 미쉘슨은 시네마가 관객을 모더니스트들이 다른 미디아에서 이끌어오던 철학적 주제를 가장 잘 고무 시킬수 있는 미디엄이라고 보았다.
    Cinema is the preeminent modernist medium
  • Bordwell 그녀는 의해 아방가르드 시네마는 모던 아트 크리틱과 역사의 한 부분으로 연구 되는데 도움을 주었으며 그녀는 반드시 모더니즘의 콘텍스트 안에서 해석 해야한다고 믿었다. Bordwell again, ‘her philosophically informed essays [have] helped make the study of avant-garde film part of modern art criticism and history. ’
  • 그러나 스트럭쳐리스트는 소쉬르의 언어적 이론을 기반으로 하고 있으므로 미쉘슨 시대의 아트를 해석하기엔 적합하지 않다고 생각했다.
  • According to Michelson, however fashionable, Structuralist theory, rooted in Saussurian linguistics, was unsuitable for the criticism of advanced art of the moment, because of that art’s apodicity, its resistance to ‘any notion of code and message in [its] stubborn claim for autonomy, immediacy, and absoluteness’ (AS 51).

  • There are cinematic works which present themselves as analogues of consciousness in its constitutive and reflexive modes, as though inquiry into the nature and processes of experience had found in this century’s art form, a striking, a uniquely direct presentational mode. The illusionism of the new, temporal art reflects and occasions reflection upon, the conditions of knowledge; it facilitates a critical focus upon the immediacy of experience in the flow of time. (TS 172)

  • 미쉴슨이 주로 연구 했던 필름 메이커들은 Snow, Cornell, Duchamp, Rainer, Eisenstein, Warhol
  • For example, the reason she views Snow’s Wavelength as a ‘masterpiece’ is, in part, because of the fact that it is a ‘grand metaphor for narrative form’ (TS 175; 176), thereby overcoming the rupture between narrative and non-narrative.

  • Vertov: The function of Three Songs of Lenin, according to Michelson, is ‘not only to commemorate’ Lenin, but to ‘definitively inter’ him, ‘to block the return of the dead (the stone set over the grave to impede the corpse’s return’ (KI 38). It ‘inserts, within our experience of lived time, the extratemporality of death’ through slow motion and freeze-frame (KI 32):
  • Eisenstein(secular) and Vertov(idealist) : Both employ the cinema to escape ordinary human perception and conscious- ness, but they do so with the eminently secular intention of helping human beings to gain greater knowledge about, and thereby mastery over, reality.


  • 그녀의 matyoure work는 미니멀리스트와 (Morris, Riner) 시작했지만, 그녀는 한가지 부분을 idealist와 공유했다. : the desire for transcendence, for escape from the limits of the merely human, the earthly, the corporeal, the ordinary, the ‘here and now,’ in search of forms of certainty and knowledge unavailable in quotidian human existence. (WH 62)
  • Vertov 와 Eisenstein을 idealist와 secular의 갭을 이어주는 것으로 볼 수 있다. 모더니스트의 1920의 에덴 ‘the revolutionary aspirations of the modernist movement in literature and the arts on the one hand, and of a Marxist or Utopian tradition on the other.’ 을 바랬다. greater knowledge of and power over reality,
  • 그런 이유로 the journal she starts with Rosalind Krauss in 1976 after Eisenstein’s film October, a work that celebrates the ‘manner in which aesthetic innovation may be a vector in the process of social change’ (AO 3).
  • The cinema, Michelson argues, was the last and most powerful of the ‘philosophical toys’ of a bygone era (OE), ones that grant their users a ‘ludic sovereignty’ over the universe, or features of it, such as the laws of space and time (WH 65).


우리가 보는 곳과 우리가 생활하는 곳 그리고 우리가 반응하는 것이 동일화 되었을 때. 그곳이 바로 real이 아닌가?


Allen, R. & Turvey, M., 2003. Camera Obscura, Camera Lucida, Amsterdam University Press.

AS ‘About Snow,’ October 8 (Spring 1979), pp. 111-25.

AP ‘Art and the Structuralist Perspective,’ in On the Future of Art (New York: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, a Viking Compass Book, 1970), pp. 37-59.

AO: 1976. About October. October, 1, pp.3–5.

CK: Michelson, A., 1969. Bodies in Space. Artforum, 7, pp.1–32. Available at: https://www.artforum.com/print/196902/bodies-in-space-film-as-carnal-knowledge-36517.

CL ‘Camera Lucida/Camera Obscura,’ Artforum XI, no. 5 (January 1973), pp. 30-37.

FR: ‘Film and the Radical Aspiration’ (1966), reprinted in Film Culture Reader, ed. P. Adams Sitney (New York: Praeger, 1970; reprinted New York: Cooper Square Press, 2000), pp. 404-22.

KI: Michelson, A., 1990. The Kinetic Icon in the Work of Mourning: Prolegomena to the Analysis of a Textual System. October, 52, p.16.

OE: ‘On the Eve of the Future: The Reasonable Facsimile and the Philosophical Toy,’

October 29 (Summer 1984), pp. 3-20.

RM: Robert Morris: The Aesthetic of Transgression, exhibition catalogue (WashingtonD.C.: Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1969), pp. 7-75.

TS ‘Toward Snow (Part I),’ Artforum IX, no. 10 (June 1971), pp. 30-37.


Cultural Theory 문화 이론

  • Benjamin’s cultural theory is significantly oriented toward the avant-garde as the corollary(필연적 결과적) to the implicit (내제하는) dangers of the society of the spectacle.
  • @Guy_Debord와 이 사상을 공유한다. -> an insistence on dismantling the society of the spectacle)
  • @Benjamin’s understanding of the urgency of his own critical practice as a response to a history in which image culture was closely tied to political current & was undergoing rapid change with new technologies.

Russell, C., 2018. Archiveology, London: Duke University Press.

Design – Directed, controlled, and persuasive

The frame started its history accompany with the image. It shifted its form from the spatial environment, virtual image, spatial object, and once again into the spatial and time-based environment.

In cinema, it is possible to speak message through the narrative or by actor’s line. The narrative consists of the movement of the shot and changing the scene, and linear timeline. In design, rhetoric leads a role as a speaking person. Meaning of the term rhetoric “the art of using language so as to persuade or influence others.” It could be a colour and a form which contains information about the speech. As soon as the move from concept to visible manifestation is made, and especially to a manifestation as highly organised as a timetable, then the means used become rhetorical. Another definition of rhetoric might be tried, the art of directed communication – directed, that is, both internally to organise the material communication and externally to persuade an audience. Moreover, rhetoric in design can be delivered by another form/medium. To persuade or influence, narrative and rhetoric are shifting the form ‘frame’ as a directed vision. As the frame guide the order of the image in the comic books or traditional Egyptian wall painting, it implies the order of the event and strengthens the message, as narrative and time does in the cinema frame.

Technologies open narratives and make the construction of navigatable and immersive narrative environment. Now, each frame does not shows fixed and decided narrative, but exchangeable and discovered. Now, not only viewers gaze moves, and subject in the narrative’s movement influence message. However, The movement of the UK’s government shows that the frame could make two separate stories into one. The frame in the Youtube channels applied cinematic language, for example, ‘cinema mode’.

The impact of the frame, I believe, is not only limited within the interface but also individual laptop screen. The narrative or rhetoric is already made to some degree and the user opens their device up. The physical frame is not playing a role as a spatial environment that configuring the image. Expanded physical frame space, such as multi-user, distributed, mobile, ubiquitous, wearable, mixed reality, increasingly broaden the range of experimental representation.

On the other hand, within the interface, which is controlled by system and operators offered imagery inhabited information spaces, ‘typical results are self-reflexive products where the ideological underpinnings of their commercial stratagems remain unchanged (Shaw, 2012)’. No matter how much new digital technologies seduced the user with an enhanced image, ‘they tend to promulgate reactionary paradigms of the cinematic experience and of societal engagement with new media (Shaw, 2012)’. This comment can be interpreted in a way that, this is the time to design language at interface should be studied toward a new type of the language.

The cinematic imaginary dominates screen world. However, the distortion of the experience derived by the physicality of the frame, the immateriality of the new media, and old design language is greatest ever before. The messages easily become perverse and misdelivered. The noise of the language widens the creativity of the imagery. However, we should wisely distinguish between noise and distortion.


Shaw, J., 2012. New-media art and the renewal of the cinematic imaginary. Technoetic Arts, 10(2), pp.173–177.




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